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1. Ethics: 13 <ul><li>Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility…
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  • 1. Ethics: 13 <ul><li>Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul>
  • 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Understand what is meant by ethical research. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the main ethical guidelines when carrying out psychological research. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how unethical research can be justified. </li></ul>
  • 3. Ethical issues <ul><li>Psychologists are obliged to consider the psychological well-being, health, values and dignity of their participants. </li></ul><ul><li>If they do not do this properly, their research is described as unethical. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers should strive to ensure that their research is as ethical as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems arising from conflict between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is necessary for the research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The moral obligations towards participants. </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Practices that raise ethical issues <ul><li>Getting informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>Deceiving PPs </li></ul><ul><li>Putting PPs at elevated risk of harm </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining confidential information </li></ul><ul><li>Invading PPs’ privacy </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Why do we care so much about the well-being of the PPs? Why don’t we just do what’s good for our science? </li></ul>
  • 6. BPS Guidelines: <ul><li>Guidelines issued by the British Psychological Society (or equivalent professional body e.g. APA) </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify what is ethically acceptable in psychological research </li></ul>
  • 7. A: Respect <ul><li>Informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Deception </li></ul><ul><li>Right to Withdraw </li></ul>
  • 8. Informed consent <ul><li>Participants must be told about anything ‘that might reasonably affect their willingness to participate’ (BPS, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Audio, video and photographic recordings should only be made with consent. </li></ul><ul><li>Children (under 16yrs) should give their own consent in addition to a parent or legal guardian’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults with impairments should give their own consent in addition to the researcher consulting with an independent adviser or family member. </li></ul><ul><li>Observations: the researcher does not need to gain prior consent to observing people in public places but must not breach their confidentiality. </li></ul><ul><li>No Pressure: e.g. payment. </li></ul>
  • 9. Confidentiality <ul><li>All data should be confidential , all PPs should be anonymous and unidentifiable unless prior informed consent given. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be problematic in case studies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures should routinely anonymise PPs (e.g. through use of numbers; not recording names etc.). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If confidentiality cannot be ensured e.g. a participant discloses something illegal, they must be warned of this at the start of the investigation. </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Privacy <ul><li>PPs’ right to privacy must be respected esp. since invasions of privacy may affect well-being and raise confidentiality issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect social & cultural variability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PPs may be unwilling to answer certain Qs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe only public behaviour in public places </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Deception <ul><li>Should be avoided if at all possible, especially where it would raise other issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will it cause stress? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would the participants participate if they knew? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only permissible where research is very important and no alternative method is available (APA). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants must be fully informed as soon as possible (BPS). </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Right to withdraw <ul><li>Can stop participating at any time, including during and after the study. </li></ul><ul><li>For any reason. </li></ul><ul><li>Their results will not be included. </li></ul><ul><li>This should be made clear at the start & end of the study. </li></ul>
  • 13. B: Competence <ul><li>Psychologists should work within the limits of their own: </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge, </li></ul><ul><li>skills, </li></ul><ul><li>training, </li></ul><ul><li>education, </li></ul><ul><li>expertise. </li></ul>
  • 14. C: Responsibility <ul><li>Protection of participants </li></ul><ul><li>Debrief </li></ul><ul><li>Non-human animals </li></ul>
  • 15. Protection of participants <ul><li>Risk should be no more than participants expect in everyday life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical and psychological harm (e.g. stress, damage to self image) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants should leave the study unchanged from how they entered it (debriefing). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any negative effects of an investigation should be dealt with afterwards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If evidence of psychological or physical problems arise from study: the researcher must offer advise or recommend them to a professional. </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Briefing <ul><li>Before the study, researcher must obtain informed consent & ensure participants understand tasks etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain nature of study & invite participation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruct participants about what is expected of them & what will happen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm that they fully consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain that they can withdraw at any time, for any reason. </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Debriefing <ul><li>After the study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform participants about the true nature of the research they have participated in. Explain the aims, nature of the study and any deceptions used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure no harm has occurred and participants are in a healthy state of mind and leave in their initial state. Reassure the participants about their performance or behaviour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain feedback about the study; check for negative effects or misunderstandings; invite and answer questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer the right to withdraw and destroy data if so. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widen public understanding of psychology. </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Non-human animals <ul><li>Choose a species, which is scientifically suitable for the area of study and will suffer the least from the investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the smallest number of animals possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid procedures which cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm. If not possible need a project license . </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that animals are well housed and cared for. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal feeding and breeding habits should not be disrupted. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate free-living animals as much as possible, with as little interference with their natural environment. </li></ul>
  • 19. D: Integrity <ul><li>Psychologists should value honesty, accuracy, clarity and fairness in their interactions with participants and the public. </li></ul>
  • 20. Unethical Research <ul><li>Research that breaches the ethical guidelines may still be carried out if it’s outcome can be justified. </li></ul><ul><li>Deception is very common: this may cause distress or embarrassment for the participants. This may be justified if they are treated ethically after the event e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>counselled </li></ul><ul><li>ensured privacy </li></ul><ul><li>given the right to withdraw. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to deceive participants when investigating prejudice, memory etc. </li></ul>
  • 21. Summary <ul><li>Ethical research protects the welfare of participants. </li></ul><ul><li>The main ethical guidelines covering psychological research are: informed consent, deception, debriefing, withdrawal from an investigation, confidentiality, protection of participants and working with animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Unethical research can be justified if the costs are outweighed by the benefits of the findings. </li></ul>
  • Biomedical Science

    Jul 23, 2017


    Jul 23, 2017
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