Slides

PsychExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

Description
1. Ethics: 13 <ul><li>Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility…
Categories
Published
of 21
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  • 1. Ethics: 13 <ul><li>Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul>
  • 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Understand what is meant by ethical research. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the main ethical guidelines when carrying out psychological research. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how unethical research can be justified. </li></ul>
  • 3. Ethical issues <ul><li>Psychologists are obliged to consider the psychological well-being, health, values and dignity of their participants. </li></ul><ul><li>If they do not do this properly, their research is described as unethical. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers should strive to ensure that their research is as ethical as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems arising from conflict between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is necessary for the research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The moral obligations towards participants. </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Practices that raise ethical issues <ul><li>Getting informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>Deceiving PPs </li></ul><ul><li>Putting PPs at elevated risk of harm </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining confidential information </li></ul><ul><li>Invading PPs’ privacy </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Why do we care so much about the well-being of the PPs? Why don’t we just do what’s good for our science? </li></ul>
  • 6. BPS Guidelines: http://www.bps.org.uk <ul><li>Guidelines issued by the British Psychological Society (or equivalent professional body e.g. APA) </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify what is ethically acceptable in psychological research </li></ul>
  • 7. A: Respect <ul><li>Informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Deception </li></ul><ul><li>Right to Withdraw </li></ul>
  • 8. Informed consent <ul><li>Participants must be told about anything ‘that might reasonably affect their willingness to participate’ (BPS, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Audio, video and photographic recordings should only be made with consent. </li></ul><ul><li>Children (under 16yrs) should give their own consent in addition to a parent or legal guardian’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults with impairments should give their own consent in addition to the researcher consulting with an independent adviser or family member. </li></ul><ul><li>Observations: the researcher does not need to gain prior consent to observing people in public places but must not breach their confidentiality. </li></ul><ul><li>No Pressure: e.g. payment. </li></ul>
  • 9. Confidentiality <ul><li>All data should be confidential , all PPs should be anonymous and unidentifiable unless prior informed consent given. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be problematic in case studies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures should routinely anonymise PPs (e.g. through use of numbers; not recording names etc.). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If confidentiality cannot be ensured e.g. a participant discloses something illegal, they must be warned of this at the start of the investigation. </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Privacy <ul><li>PPs’ right to privacy must be respected esp. since invasions of privacy may affect well-being and raise confidentiality issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect social & cultural variability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PPs may be unwilling to answer certain Qs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe only public behaviour in public places </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Deception <ul><li>Should be avoided if at all possible, especially where it would raise other issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will it cause stress? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would the participants participate if they knew? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only permissible where research is very important and no alternative method is available (APA). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants must be fully informed as soon as possible (BPS). </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Right to withdraw <ul><li>Can stop participating at any time, including during and after the study. </li></ul><ul><li>For any reason. </li></ul><ul><li>Their results will not be included. </li></ul><ul><li>This should be made clear at the start & end of the study. </li></ul>
  • 13. B: Competence <ul><li>Psychologists should work within the limits of their own: </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge, </li></ul><ul><li>skills, </li></ul><ul><li>training, </li></ul><ul><li>education, </li></ul><ul><li>expertise. </li></ul>
  • 14. C: Responsibility <ul><li>Protection of participants </li></ul><ul><li>Debrief </li></ul><ul><li>Non-human animals </li></ul>
  • 15. Protection of participants <ul><li>Risk should be no more than participants expect in everyday life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical and psychological harm (e.g. stress, damage to self image) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants should leave the study unchanged from how they entered it (debriefing). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any negative effects of an investigation should be dealt with afterwards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If evidence of psychological or physical problems arise from study: the researcher must offer advise or recommend them to a professional. </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Briefing <ul><li>Before the study, researcher must obtain informed consent & ensure participants understand tasks etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain nature of study & invite participation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruct participants about what is expected of them & what will happen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm that they fully consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain that they can withdraw at any time, for any reason. </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Debriefing <ul><li>After the study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform participants about the true nature of the research they have participated in. Explain the aims, nature of the study and any deceptions used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure no harm has occurred and participants are in a healthy state of mind and leave in their initial state. Reassure the participants about their performance or behaviour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain feedback about the study; check for negative effects or misunderstandings; invite and answer questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer the right to withdraw and destroy data if so. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widen public understanding of psychology. </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Non-human animals <ul><li>Choose a species, which is scientifically suitable for the area of study and will suffer the least from the investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the smallest number of animals possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid procedures which cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm. If not possible need a project license . </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that animals are well housed and cared for. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal feeding and breeding habits should not be disrupted. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate free-living animals as much as possible, with as little interference with their natural environment. </li></ul>
  • 19. D: Integrity <ul><li>Psychologists should value honesty, accuracy, clarity and fairness in their interactions with participants and the public. </li></ul>
  • 20. Unethical Research <ul><li>Research that breaches the ethical guidelines may still be carried out if it’s outcome can be justified. </li></ul><ul><li>Deception is very common: this may cause distress or embarrassment for the participants. This may be justified if they are treated ethically after the event e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>counselled </li></ul><ul><li>ensured privacy </li></ul><ul><li>given the right to withdraw. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to deceive participants when investigating prejudice, memory etc. </li></ul>
  • 21. Summary <ul><li>Ethical research protects the welfare of participants. </li></ul><ul><li>The main ethical guidelines covering psychological research are: informed consent, deception, debriefing, withdrawal from an investigation, confidentiality, protection of participants and working with animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Unethical research can be justified if the costs are outweighed by the benefits of the findings. </li></ul>
  • Biomedical Science

    Jul 23, 2017

    businessetiquette

    Jul 23, 2017
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks