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1. The Multi-Store Explanation of MemoryLearning: Explanations of Memory: The Multi-Store ModelDoing: Looking at the features of the multi-storeexplanation of memory…
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  • 1. The Multi-Store Explanation of MemoryLearning: Explanations of Memory: The Multi-Store ModelDoing: Looking at the features of the multi-storeexplanation of memory Reviewing the research that supports theexplanation
  • 2. The Multi-Store Explanation of MemoryLong-Term Sensory Short-Term Store Store Store Sensory Short-Term Long-Term Store Store StoreCapacity: Capacity: Capacity:Very limited 7 items or Unlimited chunksDuration: Duration: Duration:<1 second ? Potentially lifelong
  • 3. Duration of the Short-Term StorePeterson and Peterson (1959)• A trigram (three consonants) will be presented briefly on screen. Say this out loud.• Immediately after this, begin counting backwards in threes from the number indicated• When the smiley face appears, write down the trigram
  • 4. Trial 1
  • 5. RKD
  • 6. 48
  • 7. RKD
  • 8. Trial 2
  • 9. MGL
  • 10. 52
  • 11. The Duration of the Short-Term Store– Why was a trigram like FGL chosen rather than HMV or MPH?– What was the purpose of counting backwards?– The graph shows Peterson and Peterson’s results. What conclusions would you draw?
  • 12. The Duration of the Short-Term StorePeterson and Peterson (1959)Aim: to measure how long information lasts in the short-term store without rehearsalMethod: Participants were presented with three letter trigrams, then counted backwards in threes to prevent rehearsal for different lengths of time. They then had to recall the trigram.Results: accuracy of recall dropped rapidly to around 10% after 18 secondsConclusions: Information cannot be held for more than 20-30 seconds in the short-term store without rehearsal
  • 13. The Multi-Store Model of Memory Sensory Short-Term Long-Term Store Store StoreCapacity: Capacity: Capacity:Very limited 7 items or Unlimited chunksDuration: Duration: Duration:<1 second <30 seconds Potentially lifelong
  • 14. Short-term and Long-term stores• Instructions: – You are going to be presented with 20 words at two second intervals – You will then be asked to free recall as many of these words as possible – Tip – try repeating the previous items from the list in your head, adding the new one each time
  • 15. Butter
  • 16. Horse
  • 17. Paper
  • 18. Orange
  • 19. Garage
  • 20. Ivy
  • 21. Table
  • 22. Jumper
  • 23. Wagon
  • 24. Ruler
  • 25. Carpet
  • 26. Princess
  • 27. Football
  • 28. Bullet
  • 29. Slippers
  • 30. Motor
  • 31. Napkin
  • 32. Denmark
  • 33. Hammer
  • 34. Cupcake
  • 35. The complete list. Which did you forget? 1. Butter • Carpet 2. Horse • Princess 3. Paper • Football 4. Orange • Bullet 5. Garage • Slippers 6. Ivy • Motor 7. Table • Napkin 8. Jumper • Denmark 9. Wagon • Hammer 10. Ruler • Cupcake
  • 36. The Primacy and Recency EffectMurdock (1962)Aim: To provide evidence of separate short-term and long-term storesMethod: Participants were given a list of words to remember, presented at two second intervals, which they had to free recall.Results: Words from the end of the list Words from the beginning of the list: Words from the middle of the list:Conclusion: Why?
  • 37. Issues – discuss in pairs• Relevance of tasks• Tasks were artificial, and lack ecological validity• Only rehearsed information enters the long- term store• Not all information in the LTS is rehearsed; rehearsal does not always lead to remembering• Practical Applications – Real life uses of this• Telephone numbers and Car registrations are presented so as to be easily remembered
  • 38. Lesson Objectives• To know the features of the Multi-Store Model of Memory – What are the three stages of the MSM?• To know how some of these features have been demonstrated experimentally – How have capacity and duration been demonstrated? – What did Murdock’s experiment show?• To be able to suggest practical applications for the Multi-Store Model – How have the findings from the MSM been used in a practical way?
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    Jul 23, 2017

    Basura

    Jul 23, 2017
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