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1. Mark scheme for exam… Common errors are in red… 2. Exp why studies of mem have been criticised as lacking validity (5 marks) <ul><li>1)a) AO3 = 5 marks…
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  • 1. Mark scheme for exam… Common errors are in red…
  • 2. Exp why studies of mem have been criticised as lacking validity (5 marks) <ul><li>1)a) AO3 = 5 marks Explanation that demonstrates understanding of validity and knowledge of the studies. The most likely focus is on the supposed lack of ecological validity of much of this research in terms of: </li></ul><ul><li>• laboratory environment in which the research was undertaken </li></ul><ul><li>• participants not being emotionally aroused as in a real incident or not feeling the same responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>• the tasks lacking realism as participants viewed a video, not the real incident. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to modification (memory not EWT) case study reference are appropriate here too </li></ul><ul><li>Ref to internal & external validity </li></ul><ul><li>Population validity (esp. if example given) e.g. student sample (own-age bias and EWT) </li></ul><ul><li>Where candidates refer to studies, this may be credited in so far as it is focused on validity and enhances the explanation. </li></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>Some of these studies are cause studies and these lack reliability and therefore internal validity. Other studies of memory lack external validity (specifically ecological validity) because they are lab experiments and lack mundane realism. Also the participants in memory studies are normally students (As they are easy to recruit) but this is an unrepresentative sample meaning the studies which used these are lacking in population validity. </li></ul>
  • 4. Following questions are on this experiment: <ul><li>One lab experiment explored recall either in an anxiety inducing situation, or a neutral situation. 20 male and 20 female participants were recruited from a university to take part. Half were wired up to electrodes and told these electrodes would administer random electric shocks. They then watched a video of a staged crime. The other half watched the video but were not wired up to electrodes. Following the video participants were asked to recall events. </li></ul>
  • 5. 5) a) Write a fully operationalised directional hypothesis for this study <ul><li>Correct statement of the hypothesis in this study. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants will have poorer recall on a questionnaire for a video of a staged crime in an anxiety inducing situation (electrodes) than in a neutral situation (no electrodes). </li></ul><ul><li>One mark for “memory will be better for anxiety inducing situation”. Two marks for a directional operationalised hypothesis as above. </li></ul>
  • 6. 5) b) What were the IV and DV in this study? <ul><li>IV = The independent variable is anxiety level – neutral, or anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>DV = The DV is recall of events from the video. </li></ul><ul><li>If the paper gives two marks for stating an IV or DV the examiner will be looking for a fully operationalised IV/DV. </li></ul>
  • 7. NOTE on q5! <ul><li>Note that because this is a one mark question, ‘electrodes or no-electrodes’ was accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>However! In the exam IV/DV questions will be worth 2 marks, you must correctly identify the IV and operationalise it. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ electrodes or no electrodes’ is how the IV in this case – anxious or neutral situation – was operationalised. </li></ul>
  • 8. 5) c) What experimental design was used in this study? <ul><li>Independent groups or independent design </li></ul>
  • 9. 5) d) State one limitation of this design <ul><li>Individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>Or – need more participants (twice as many) </li></ul>
  • 10. 5) e) Participants responded to an advertisement on the university website. What sampling method is this? <ul><li>Volunteer sampling </li></ul>
  • 11. 5) f) What’s one problem with using the sampling method above? <ul><li>One mark for stating that the group is likely to be biased </li></ul><ul><li>Two marks for stating how i.e. that they’re likely to be more motivated &/or have more time on their hands so they’re not representative of the population, i.e. that the study lacks population validity </li></ul>
  • 12. 5) g) What’s one problem with the validity of this research? <ul><li>The research we’ve studied is a lab experiment and is quite unrealistic – it lacks mundane realism. </li></ul><ul><li>For the 2nd mark: This is a problem because you may not be able to generalise the results of an experiment to the real world because it lacks ecological validity. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The research we’ve studied is based on student populations, using only students might lead to a lack of population validity because students may have particular characteristics. Therefore the study might not be generalisable to the population. </li></ul>
  • 13. 5) h) In the research above, although the ethical guideline to ‘protect participants from harm’ was not breached because no electric shock was actually given, there may be other ethical concerns with the study. Explain one concern and what the researchers must do as a result of this concern. <ul><li>For one mark candidates should identify either the lack of informed consent or the corresponding deception involved in the study. </li></ul><ul><li>For the second mark candidates should identify the full debrief as a requirement for the researchers. </li></ul>
  • 15. Following questions are on this experiment: <ul><li>In one class, participants were given a subject test, and asked to revise for it using a loci method. Another class was given a subject test, and asked to revise for it using a mnemonic method. Test results were analysed to compare recall in each group. </li></ul>
  • 16. 4) a) What were the IV and DV in this study? <ul><li>IV – method used, mnemonic v loci </li></ul><ul><li>DV – test result </li></ul>
  • 17. 4) b) Write a fully operationalised non-directional hypothesis for this study <ul><li>There will be a significant difference in examination test score between those using a loci memory aid strategy and those using a mnemonic memory aid strategy </li></ul>
  • 18. NOTE on q5! <ul><li>In the exam IV/DV questions will be worth 2 marks, you must correctly identify the IV and operationalise it. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ electrodes or no electrodes’ is how the IV in this case – anxious or neutral situation – was operationalised. </li></ul>
  • 19. 4) c) What experimental design was used in this study? <ul><li>Independent groups or independent design </li></ul>
  • 20. 4) d) What type of experiment is this study? <ul><li>Field </li></ul>
  • 21. 4) e) Participants were recruited and allocated based on what class they were in and who was in on the day. What sampling method is this? <ul><li>opportunity </li></ul>
  • 22. 4) f) What’s one problem with using the sampling method above? <ul><li>Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Non-random allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Population validity </li></ul><ul><li>AND for second mark Correct explanation </li></ul>
  • 23. 4) g) What’s one problem with the validity of this research? <ul><li>Internal validity </li></ul><ul><li>Participant effects & experimenter effects </li></ul><ul><li>Sample bias </li></ul><ul><li>External validity (population validity) </li></ul><ul><li>For the 2nd mark: This is a problem because you may not be able to generalise the results/the measure may be inaccurate (internal) </li></ul>
  • 24. 4) h) Suggest one way to improve the validity of this research. <ul><li>Random allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated measures </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative population </li></ul>
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