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1. Making a case<br /><ul><li>Have you ever wondered how a crime comes to court? 2. Are the police any good at detecting liars? 3. Does profiling a…
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  • 1. Making a case<br /><ul><li>Have you ever wondered how a crime comes to court?
  • 2. Are the police any good at detecting liars?
  • 3. Does profiling a suspect really work?</li></li></ul><li>Topics covered in this unit<br /><ul><li>Interviewing witnesses</li></ul>i. Face recognition<br />ii. Weapon focus<br />iii. Cognitive interview technique<br /><ul><li>Interviewing suspects</li></ul>i. Lie detection<br />ii. Interrogation techniques<br />iii. False confessions<br /><ul><li>Creating a profile</li></ul>Top-down typology<br />Bottom up approaches<br />Profiling case study<br />
  • 4. Eyewitness difficulties<br />If you were at the scene of a crime, what factors might affect your memory for what you saw?<br />
  • 5. 4<br />Factors Influencing Identification<br />Weapon focus refers to the concentration of a crime witness’s attention on a weapon and the resulting difficulty in remembering other details of the scene <br />Perception experiments have shown that people fixate their gaze for longer, faster and more often on unusual or highly informative objects <br />
  • 6. 5<br />Factors Influencing Identification<br />Eye fixation data<br />The participant is filmed while looking at slides or a video clip and minute accurate measurements are made exactly where the eyes are scanning. <br />These measurements can then be plotted to reveal the gaze concentration <br />
  • 7. 6<br />Interviewing Witnesses: Loftus et al (1987)<br />Aim<br />To provide support for the weapon focus effect when witnessing a crime<br />Methodology<br />A laboratory experiment<br />
  • 8. 7<br />Interviewing Witnesses: Loftus et al (1987)<br />Participants<br />36 students at University of Washington, aged 18 – 31 <br />½ were recruited through an advertisement and were paid $3.50 <br />The remainder participated in exchange for credit in their psychology classes <br />
  • 9. 8<br />Interviewing Witnesses: Loftus et al (1987)<br />Procedure<br />Participants were told it was a study of proactive interference<br />2 sets of 35mm slides were shown <br />The 18 slides in each series showed people queuing in Taco Time restaurant <br />In the control group, person B (2nd in the line) hands the cashier a cheque <br />In the experimental condition, person B pulls a gun (the IV) <br />All the other slides in both series were identical and shown for 1½ seconds <br />DV measured by a 20-item multiple-choice questionnaire <br />Participants were also given a line up of 12 head & shoulder photos in a random sequence, <br />asked to rate how confident they were of their identification on a scale of 1 (guess) to 6 (very sure)<br />
  • 10. 9<br />Interviewing Witnesses: Loftus et al (1987)<br />Results<br />Answers to the questionnaire about the slide showed no significant difference between the two conditions<br />Chance performance on the photo line up was calculated to be 8.5% <br />In the control condition, 38.9% chose the correct person B (7 people) against 11.1% in the weapon condition (2 people)<br />statistically significant <br />There was no difference in the confidence level of either group <br />Eye fixation data showed an average of 3.72 on the gun and 2.44 on the cheque<br />also statistically significant<br />
  • 11. 10<br />Interviewing Witnesses: Loftus et al (1987)<br />Discussion<br />The participants spent longer looking at the weapon and therefore had more difficulty in picking the suspect from the line-up<br />2nd experiment, using the same procedure with another 80 psychology students, supported the findings <br />This influence may be further enhanced in a real-world situation when a witness will be more aroused and is likely to have increased attention narrowing <br />
  • 12. 11<br />Interviewing Witnesses: Loftus et al (1987)<br />An unusual attack or one involving a weapon is going to affect the witness’s ability to create an E-fit of the attacker<br />
  • 13. Evaluation <br />Please identify 3-4 issues from the Loftus study on your evaluation handouts<br />
  • 14. Twitter<br />Now you have read and evaluated the study by Loftus please complete a Twitter summarising the key points from the study.<br />
  • 15. The Cognitive Interview Technique<br />Over the last 20 years the police have worked with psychologists to develop the CI.<br />It is designed to take account of well-known cognitive functions and avoid any chance of leading the witness.<br />The CI is a set of instructions given by the interviewer to the witness to reinstate the context of the original event and to search through memory by using a variety of retrieval methods.<br />
  • 16. The Cognitive Interview Technique<br />Theoretically the technique rests upon two principal assumptions:<br />Memory of an event is made up of an interconnected network and that there should therefore be several ways of getting to the same point<br />Retrieval from memory will be more effective if at the time of retrieval the context surrounding the original events can be reinstated. Remembering some aspects of experience leads, by association, to others, but the sequence cannot be predicted and may seem confused to a listener.<br />
  • 17. Fisher et al <br />Read the study by Fisher for the CI technique and complete the task below.<br />Using your worksheet labelled ‘The Forensic Times’ please write a news article, using Fisher as your evidence, about a the new technique being used by police officers across the country (obviously I’m talking about the Cognitive Interview Technique).<br />Articles must be written in the style of a newspaper report.<br />
  • 18. The Cognitive Interview Technique<br />You will now be divided into groups of 3.<br />One of you will be the witness<br />One of you will be the interviewer<br />One of you will be the camera man/woman<br />
  • 19. The Cognitive Interview Technique<br />Depending on your role you will be required to take on the following task:<br />Witness - 5 minutes to write an account of what you can remember from your very first day of college (do not consult with anybody else).<br />Interviewer - 5 minutes to read the CI handout and think of questions to ask your witness to get the most information you can out of them<br />Camera man/woman - see me at the front for briefing on equipment use<br />
  • 20. Face Recogition<br />According to Bruce we recognise familiar faces more from their internal features as opposed to their external features.<br />Internal = eyes, brows, nose and mouth<br />External = head shape, hair and ears<br />However, we recognise unfamiliar faces more from the external features.<br />
  • 21. Facial composition programmes<br />The police use a number of sophisticated programmes to recreate the faces of suspects. <br />E-FIT<br />PRO-fit<br />Sketch<br />EvoFIT<br />In the past police would have relied on artist impressions.<br />On your laptops enter the following link:<br /><br />
  • 22.
  • 23. CIT revisited<br />Watch the selected videos from Friday’s CI filming lesson:<br />For each video comment on the following;<br />Did you spot any leading Q’s being used?<br />How well did the interviewer try to recreate the context of the event?<br />
  • 24. Evaluation <br />Please identify 3-4 issues from the Fisher’s study on your evaluation handouts<br />
  • 25. Bruce Diagram<br />Read the study by Bruce and complete the summary diagram.<br />
  • 26. Evaluation <br />Please identify 3-4 issues from the Bruce study on your evaluation handouts<br />
  • 27. Interviewing suspects<br />‘You do not have to say anything, but it may harm your defence if you do not mention when questioned something which you later rely on in Court. Anything you do say may be given in evidence.’<br />
  • 28. Interviewing suspects<br />Detecting lies<br />Interrogation <br />False confessions <br />
  • 29. Would I lie to you?<br /><br />Police officers tend to think they are pretty good <br />at detecting lies and believe that suspects give <br />away small details through body language such <br />as looking down, putting their hands over their <br />mouths and being inconsistent under repetitive <br />questioning. <br />Mann put their skills under the test in his exp.<br />
  • 30. Mann et al<br />Read the study by Mann regarding police officers ability to detect suspects’ lies.<br />Organise the information from the study in your worksheet.<br />
  • 31. Evaluation <br />Please identify 3-4 issues from the Mann’s study on your evaluation handouts<br />
  • 32.<br />Interrogation techniques<br />The rules: PACE (1984) UK<br />Interviews must be recorded and saved in triplicate<br />One sealed in front of suspect, working copy police and solicitor of suspect<br />Reading of rights must take place (to remain silent)<br />Suspect has right to a solicitor<br />In the USA, rights of suspect governed by the Miranda Rights.<br />
  • 33. Inbau et al. The Reid ‘nine steps’ of interrogation in brief<br />Read the nine steps of interrogation by Inbau and complete the worksheet in your groups.<br />
  • 34. Dangers of using interrogation<br />Unethical <br />Miss important details from the crime<br />Induces false confession<br />Leading questions alter memory<br />Too much attention paid on one suspect<br />Innocent until proven guilty<br />
  • 35. False Confessions<br />In about 25% of DNA exoneration cases, innocent defendants made incriminating <br />statements, delivered outright confessions or pled guilty.<br />These cases show that confessions are not always prompted by internal knowledge <br />or actual guilt, but are sometimes motivated by external influences.<br />Why do innocent people confess?<br />A variety of factors can contribute to a false confession during a police <br />interrogation. Many cases have included a combination of several of these causes. <br />They include:<br />duress <br />coercion <br />intoxication <br />diminished capacity <br />mental impairment <br />ignorance of the law <br />fear of violence <br />the actual infliction of harm <br />the threat of a harsh sentence <br />Misunderstanding the situation<br />Some false confessions can be explained <br /><br />
  • 36. False confessions continued<br />Kassin and Wrightsman (1985) suggest three distinct types of false confession:<br />Voluntary confession<br />Coerced compliant confession<br />Coerced internalised confession<br />Persuasion is possible due to the fragile and <br />susceptible nature of our memories, especially <br />when we are vulnerable and anxious.<br />Lots of work has been done into this phenomena, see <br />Loftus’ ‘lost in the shopping mall’ experiment too.<br />
  • 37. Gudjohnsson et al<br />Read the case study by Gudjohnsson and then...<br />Outline any relevant research which can inform us about how a suspect should be interviewed. [10]<br />A/M/S/P/R/C + relate back to question<br />1 in detail for 10 marks or 2 for 5 marks each<br />
  • 38. Evaluate the methodology used to investigate the interviewing of suspects. [15]<br />How do we plan this question?<br />
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