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1. FORENSICS 2. DEFINING CRIMEWhat are the factors that make it difficult to define crime? 3. MEASURING CRIMEBased on crimes that are reported to the police andrecorded…
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  • 2. DEFINING CRIMEWhat are the factors that make it difficult to define crime?
  • 3. MEASURING CRIMEBased on crimes that are reported to the police andrecorded in the official statisticsHollin (1992) suggested that official statistics only accountfor 25% of actual crimeCriminologists refer to dark figure of crime. What is this?
  • 4. MEASURING CRIMEWhy might crimes not be reported? Why might crimes not be recorded? Victims to afraid Insufficient time Too trivial Too trivial Inconvenience Not a priority Mistrust in police Lack of evidence Perpetrator is family/friend Victim withdraws charge
  • 5. MEASURING CRIMEAsking people is they have been a victim of crime over a specific period of time E.g. the British Crime Survey (BCS) – every 2 years, randomly selected households, over 16 year olds2006/7 BCS data showed that victim reports were greater thanofficial statisticsOfficial figures crime 2% decrease whilst BCS showed 3% increase
  • 6. MEASURING CRIME Offender self reports/surveys asks people about their offending behaviourOffending, Crime and Justice Survey (OCJS) England and Wales,ages 10-25.Answers recorded on computer in the aim to increase Validity
  • 7. MEASURING CRIMEOfficial statistics tend to under represent actual crime, masking thedark figureVictim surveys are large scale and randomly selected and so tend tobe representative. However they rely heavily on accuracy of recalland retrospective reporting may be inaccurate.Telescoping may occur – victim thinks an event occurred in last yearwhen actually it happened longer agoOffender self reports reply of honesty.Sample may also be age bias
  • 8. OFFENDER PROFILINGDouglas and Burgess (1986) “an investigativetechnique by which to identify the major personalityand behaviour characteristics of offenders basedupon analysis of the crime(s) he/she has committed”
  • 9. OFFENDER PROFILINGInformation based on 36 serial sex offenders whovolunteered to be interviewed about their crime Crime Scene? Personality?
  • 10. OFFENDER PROFILING• Study – Canter eta l (2004) there is no clear distinction between organised and disorganised offenders. Being organised is a core characteristic of serial killers as a whole. • Based on very limited sample • Two simplified – Douglas suggested a 3rd category „mixed’ • Holmes and De Burger proposed 6 types of offenders
  • 11. OFFENDER PROFILINGGeneralising from the locations of linked crime scenes tothe likely home or operational base of the offender This Knowledge f Determines Personal influences this is used to offendersexperience where the infer the mental map of world crimes are offenders of the area committed base
  • 12. OFFENDER PROFILINGFocused on psychological theory about how information isrepresentedUseful for all types of crime, not just violent crimes.Location alone may not be enough to enable a base to be inferred.
  • 15. PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACHESCriminals are a separate species with a primitive genetic form Their features allow them to survive in the wild but made them ill suited to existence in civilised society Physical Characteristics
  • 16. PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACHESHe based his theory on survey data of criminal headsand bodiesHe sampled 383 skulls of dead criminals and heads of3,839 living ones.He proposed that 40% of criminal acts wereperpetrated by those with atavistic constitutions.
  • 17. PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACHES Strengths Limitations No scientific foundation toHighly influential in theory. Goring compared physical features of criminals withpromoting views about control group – little support forbiological determinism the theory Criminals with certain facial features may have been affected by confounding variables such as poor nutrition and poverty Cause and effect cannot be established – those who have certain facial features may have been labelled as „hard‟ resulting in self fulfilling prophecy
  • 18. PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACHES Theory of crime based on body shape or somatotype STUDY 200 photographs of delinquents and 200 of control group Sheldon rated photographs on scale 1-7 (1 =not al all mesomorphic 7= extremely mesomorphic) Average rating for the delinquent adventurous4.6 compared to an Aggressive and photos was average of 3.8 for control group and IntrovertedSocial, relaxed characters Shy
  • 19. PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACHESHe did not use legal criteria for delinquency.Only a link (correlation) was found – does this meancause? Are muscular people treated differently thanslim people? - Self fulfilling prophecyHigh testosterone levels may affect body shape andaggression – Biological?West and Farrington – no link found between criminalityand body shapeGlueck and Glueck – supported Sheldons theory
  • 20. BIOLOGICAL APPROACH• Genetic Transmission Adoption Study Grove et al 77% MZ and 12% DZ Concordance MZ – 29% antisocial personality disorder Drug score and anti social score showed significant heritability 35% MZ and 12% DZ
  • 21. BIOLOGICAL APPROACH• Chromosomes No single gene has been identified 1.5% of prison population were XYY compared to 0.1% of normal population 12 men in a sample of over 4,5000 had an extra Y chromosome and none of these XYY people were criminals
  • 22. BIOLOGICAL APPROACH• Chromosomal explanations of criminality are now rejected due to lack of evidence• Twin and adoption studies (environmental factors)• Too reductionist
  • 23. PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACHES Blackburn (1993) three types of super ego may result in offendingWeak super ego Deviant Super egoAbsence of same sex the same sex parentparent at phallic stage. whom child identifiesNo opportunity to with is immoral. – childidentify with same sex internalises moral codeparent - cannot that is deviantinternalise there moralcode Over harsh Super ego Excessively punitive and demanding of guilt – actively seeking out to be punished
  • 24. PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACHES Denial – refuses to consciously acknowledge that their crimes are taking place or refuse to recognise the severity of actions Rationalisation – explaining unacceptable behaviour in a rational way. Eg someone who attacks women who are provocatively dressed might rationalise their actions as they are teaching them a lesson.
  • 25. PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACHESNo real evidence for the existence of defence mechanismsas they are unconscious processesMany people from same sex parents with whom they canidentify grow up be perfectly law abiding
  • 26. LEARNING THEORY EXPLANATIONSTwo examples of learning theories are• Sutherland‟s (1939) differential association theory and Bandura‟s (1973) social learning theory
  • 27. LEARNING THEORY EXPLANATIONSSutherland’s (1939) differential association theoryFor a person to develop into an offender they needto learn a set of values and attitudes that supportoffending, and they need to learn specificbehaviours for committing crimes. Where do they learn these from?
  • 28. LEARNING THEORY EXPLANATIONSSutherland’s (1939) differential association theory Evidence EvaluationWalmsley et al found that a third this pattern seems confinedof UK prisoners claimed to have a to petty acts of criminalityfamily member also in prison. such as vandalism.Osborne and West (1982) found Data is correlational it isthat where the father had a equally likely thatcriminal conviction, 40% of sons adolescents with deviantalso acquired one by the age of tendencies seek18, compared with only 13% of out deviant peers.the sons of non-criminal fathers.
  • 29. LEARNING THEORY EXPLANATIONS Bandura’s (1973) social learning theory Criminal behaviour is regarded as no different from any other behaviour learned through the observation of models
  • 30. LEARNING THEORY EXPLANATIONSBandura’s (1973) social learning theory Evidence EvaluationBandura Bobo Doll (1963) Large body of research however largelyWilliams (1986) examined children‟s neglected naturalisticlevels of aggression before and after research (Blackburn, 1993)the introduction of television into an and this means we shouldisolated community. He found that be cautious aboutover a two year period aggression in assuming that the processesthis community‟s children rose demonstrated in thesteadily. laboratory apply in the same way outside it.
  • 31. EYSENCKS THEORY OF CRIMINAL PERSONALITYHowever not directly inherited Consequence of the type of nervous system we inherit
  • 33. EYSENCKS THEORY OF CRIMINAL PERSONALITYEmotionally unstable and Sensational seeking anxious. Unpredictable because the nervous system is chronically under aroused
  • 34. EYSENCKS THEORY OF CRIMINAL PERSONALITY• Found that a sample of delinquent students had a combination of P, E and N scores on EPI• Found offenders had higher P and N but not E
  • 36. CUSTODIAL SENTENCINGThe aims of custodial sentencing • Deterrence • Rehabilitation/Reform • Retribution • Incapacitation/Protection from society
  • 37. CUSTODIAL SENTENCINGThe aims of custodial sentencing Recidivism Cullen and Minchin (2000) prisoners released in 1996 – 57% reoffended within two years Type of Crime – Doherty (2001) 77% Burglary 18% sex offences
  • 38. CUSTODIAL SENTENCINGInmates become institutionalised –ZimbardoCollege of Crime – inmates learn fromeach otherLoss of contact with family/friends andloss of employment may make stayingout of trouble difficult
  • 39. ALTERNATIVES TO CUSTODIAL SENTENCING• Reparation & restitution: the offender is required to undertake specified activities to „repay‟ either society or his victim for his criminal activities.• Fines: the offender is required to pay a specified sum of money to the authorities.• Probation: the offender is required to be supervised and regularly checked for a specific period.
  • 40. ALTERNATIVES TO CUSTODIAL SENTENCING Fines• The system is economical: it costs little to administer and generates a source of revenue that can be used to offset the cost of running the judicial system (amongst other things).• Fines not stigmatise the offender or their family and they may avoid some of the undesirable effects of imprisonment, such as loss of employment.• A fine may be imposed where other punishments are inappropriate, such as when a business, rather than an individual, has broken the law
  • 41. ALTERNATIVES TO CUSTODIAL SENTENCING EvidenceWalker and Farrington (1981) found that fines led tolower rates of reoffending than probation or asuspended prison sentence Evaluation Putwain and Sammons (2002) if fines are paid by the offender‟s friends or family, thereby lessening their impact on the offender themselves.
  • 42. ALTERNATIVES TO CUSTODIAL SENTENCING Probation• Oldfield (1996) studied 857 offenders in Kent. Of those given custodial sentences 63 per cent had reoffended within five years• probation avoids some of the stigmatizing and disruptive effects of imprisonment
  • 43. ALTERNATIVES TO CUSTODIAL SENTENCING Reparation and restitution• Reparation: the offender is required to spend a specified time undertaking activities of benefit to the community. In the UK this was previously called „community service‟ and is now called „community punishment‟.• Restitution: the offender is required to do things that directly compensate the victim(s) of their crimes.
  • 44. ALTERNATIVES TO CUSTODIAL SENTENCING 36 studies Face to face meeting with victim and a financial restitution to victim– compared to custodial sentencingFindings – significant reduction in recidivism for offendersProviding extensive positive support for the use of alternatives to Prision
  • 45. TREATMENT PROGRAMMES• Behaviour Modification • Token Economies (Operant conditioning) Positive behaviours were seen from young offenders on a token economy program
  • 46. TREATMENT PROGRAMMES• Behaviour Modification • Token Economies (Operant conditioning)
  • 47. TREATMENT PROGRAMMES • Anger Management Cognitive Skills Application Preparation Acquisition PracticeControl and intervention group were matched on age, type of offender and anger Group based anger management - 92% improved on anger score
  • 48. TREATMENT PROGRAMMES• Anger Management
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