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1. 2. PSYA4 Anomalistic Psychology<br />2<br />Anomalistic– the Specification<br />Theoretical and methodological issues in the study of anomalous…
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  • 2. PSYA4 Anomalistic Psychology<br />2<br />Anomalistic– the Specification<br />Theoretical and methodological issues in the study of anomalous experience<br />• Issues of pseudoscience and scientific fraud<br />• Controversies relating to Ganzfeld studies of ESP and studies of psychokinesis<br />Factors underlying anomalous experience<br />• Cognitive, personality and biological factors underlying anomalous experience<br />• Functions of paranormal and related beliefs, including their cultural significance<br />• The psychology of deception and self-deception, superstition, and coincidence<br />Belief in exceptional experience • Research into:<br /><ul><li> psychic healing
  • 3. out-of-body and near death experience
  • 4. psychic mediumship</li></li></ul><li>Aims and Objectives<br /><ul><li>Understand the nature of pseudoscience.
  • 5. Define 4 key terms underpinning anomalous psychology and use examples to explain them</li></ul>Differentiate between science and pseudoscience.<br />
  • 6. The Scientific Method<br />What do you know about this already?<br />Rigorous<br />High reliability and replicability<br />Objective<br />
  • 7. How does this differ?<br />Read the hand-out on ‘The Scientific Method and Pseudoscience’<br />Construct a Similarities and Differences table.<br />
  • 8. Does the paranormal exist?<br />Lots of Parapsychologists argue that available evidence already proves beyond doubt that the paranormal exists.<br />Critics (and Sceptics) are unconvinced of this argument.<br />Parapsychology has been criticised for having made little progress in terms of theory - mainly due to lack of reliable, empirical data<br />Many have therefore claimed that Parapsychology is a PSEUDOSCIENCE… <br />
  • 9. Science<br />Pseudoscience<br />‘Science can be seen as a quest for understanding that creates laws and principals that can be tested experimentally’<br />The systematic process of objectively collecting information to test theories/Hypotheses.<br />Replicability<br />Falsification – the Hypothetico-deductive method<br />Evidential support<br />A tendency to invoke ad hoc hypotheses<br />An absence of self-correction, resulting in intellectual stagnation<br />An emphasis on confirmation rather than refutation<br />A tendency to place the burden of proof on scepticsof claims<br />Excessive reliance on anecdotal evidence to substantiate claims<br />Evasion of the scrutiny offered by peer review<br />Absence of connectivity with other areas of science<br />Use of impressive-sounding jargon<br />An absence of boundary conditions<br />
  • 10. What evidence is there that Parapsychology could be a Pseudoscience?<br />Mousseau (2003) – Content Analysis:<br />However, there is the issue of scientific fraud…<br />However, she found that parapsychological research seems to fit more of the criteria for science than it does for pseudoscience.<br />
  • 11. Get Thinking…<br />It is good in psychology to try to see from both sides of an argument:<br />Does it matter if PSs do not follow conventional Scientific methods?<br />Who says ‘science’ is right anyway? Why are Science’s methods the best?<br />
  • 12. Plenary<br />Complete the activity on key methodological words in pseudoscience.<br />You should cross out the incorrect information so you are left with correct definitions.<br />Cross out<br />
  • 13. Homework: Read the photocopied hand-out: ‘Pseudoscience and the scientific status of parapsychology’<br />You will be tested on your understanding of this at the beginning of next lesson!<br />
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