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1. Key Issue Abu Ghraib Blind obedience to authority in a prison setting 2. Abu Ghraib <ul><li>Abu Ghraib prison is in Iraq and was used by the Iraqi…
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  • 1. Key Issue Abu Ghraib Blind obedience to authority in a prison setting
  • 2. Abu Ghraib <ul><li>Abu Ghraib prison is in Iraq and was used by the Iraqi government as a prison for many years. When the Iraqi government was removed from power, the prison was used for Iraqi detainees who were guarded by soldiers from the USA. In April 2004 newspapers were filled with photographs and descriptions of the torture of the Iraqi detainees and there was public condemnation of what was clearly unacceptable treatment of them. </li></ul>
  • 3. Abu Ghraib <ul><li>When people obey orders against their own moral code, this is seen as BLIND OBEDIENCE, and it was assumed that the actions of the US soldiers which dehumanised the Iraqis were against their own moral code. </li></ul>
  • 4. Key issue <ul><li>Why would the soldiers carry out these acts? </li></ul><ul><li>Was it blind obedience to authority? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the soldiers be charged with unlawful acts? </li></ul><ul><li>Were the soldiers being brutal rather than ‘just’ obeying orders? </li></ul><ul><li>- You tube clip – what is this clip showing? </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>You must be able to show your understanding of the key issue itself as well as explaining the issue using concepts and ideas from the social approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the key issue from the social approach which you have studied. (4 marks) </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>How can the Social Approach explain the key issue? </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the theories and studies you have learnt. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss in pairs – make a note of your ideas </li></ul>
  • 7. Explaining the Key issue <ul><li>1.Milgram – Ps willing to give electric shocks after being given an order from someone in authority. Therefore the soldiers would obey orders to torture the Iraqi prisoners because they would be obeying an authority figure. Milgram’s Ps were distressed but still continued – the soldiers may have been distressed, going against their moral code, causing moral strain, but would still continue, just like Milgram’s Ps did. </li></ul>
  • 8. Explaining the Key issue <ul><li>2. Hofling found nurses would obey authority in a natural setting, going against the rules of the hospital and their training. This reinforces the idea that the US soldiers would obey orders even if it meant brutal acts. </li></ul>
  • 9. Explaining the Key issue <ul><li>3. Milgram’s AGENCY THEORY can explain the key issue, because the soldiers are trained to be agents of authority and agents of society and, as soldiers, they would be agents obeying the orders rather than autonomous individuals. The soldiers would not have been in an autonomous state, and would have therefore be more able to carry out the orders. </li></ul>
  • 10. Explaining the Key issue <ul><li>4. Tajfel’s Social Identity Theory can explain Abu Ghraib. There was clearly in and out groups, one of which (the US soldiers) had all the power. The US soldiers would identify with their in-group, which has a past of mistreating out-groups. In order to establish their social identity they accepted the group norms as standard and abused the prisoners. The out-group are the enemy in this situation, and the soldiers would have wanted to promote the interests of their in-group over the out-group. </li></ul>
  • 11. Exam question <ul><li>Use concepts and ideas from the social approach to explain the key issue you have studied (8 marks) </li></ul>
  • 12. Warning… <ul><li>In the exam you may be given stimulus material to explain using the concepts and ideas from the Social Approach. Make sure you know how to APPLY theories and studies to real life situations. </li></ul>
  • 13. Extended practice <ul><li>There had always been unrest in the country but now the two fractions had turned from legal protesting to actual fighting, so something had to be done. It had got worse since the rebel had taken over as leader – they followed her no matter what she ordered them to do. And the other side was just as bad – as soon as they violence against them had escalated, they fought back even harder. You would have thought that after so long living together in the same country they would have learned to share it – but the one group of course claimed their ownership of the land, and the other group saw themselves as having an equal right to be there too. </li></ul><ul><li>Using concepts and ideas from the social approach, explain the situation outlined in the stimulus material above might have come about (9 marks) </li></ul>
  • Apr23-2014

    Jul 23, 2017
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