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1. AS Level Psychology The core studies Cognitive Approach 2. Eye Witness Testimony 3. Eye Witness Testimony <ul><li>The study of human memory is a research…
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  • 1. AS Level Psychology The core studies Cognitive Approach
  • 2. Eye Witness Testimony
  • 3. Eye Witness Testimony <ul><li>The study of human memory is a research area in COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Eye witness testimony involves memory! </li></ul>
  • 4. How reliable is your MEMORY? <ul><li>Class memory activities! </li></ul>
  • 5. EYE WITNESS TESTIMONY? <ul><li>Elizabeth Loftus & Palmer </li></ul><ul><li>TESTED </li></ul><ul><li>The reliability of eye witness testimony </li></ul><ul><li>Can the memory of an event be changed by the way witnesses are questioned? </li></ul><ul><li>The effect of leading questions </li></ul>
  • 6. LOFTUS & PALMER <ul><li>Class discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>What is a leading question ? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we agree that </li></ul><ul><li>Memory is NOT like a camera - we always reconstruct our memories </li></ul>
  • 7. LOFTUS& PALMER <ul><li>The title of their paper was: </li></ul><ul><li>The reconstruction of an automobile destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Their research involved TWO experiments </li></ul>
  • 8. LOFTUS & PALMER Experiment 1 <ul><li>The participants - 45 students </li></ul><ul><li>The procedure - Students watched film clips of car accidents </li></ul><ul><li>After watching the films the students were asked to do TWO things </li></ul>
  • 9. LOFTUS & PALMER Experiment 1 <ul><li>Write an account of what they had seen </li></ul><ul><li>Answer questions about what they had seen </li></ul><ul><li>One question was the CRITICAL QUESTION </li></ul>
  • 10. LOFTUS & PALMER Experiment 1 <ul><li>THE CRITICAL QUESTION </li></ul><ul><li>About how fast were the cars going when they (*******) each other </li></ul><ul><li>There were five conditions (verbs) in the experiment (Five groups of students) </li></ul>
  • 11. LOFTUS & PALMER Experiment 1 <ul><li>The five conditions (verbs) were </li></ul><ul><li>CONTACTED </li></ul><ul><li>HIT </li></ul><ul><li>BUMPED </li></ul><ul><li>COLLIDED </li></ul><ul><li>SMASHED </li></ul>
  • 12. LOFTUS & PALMER Experiment 1 <ul><li>The findings </li></ul>
  • 13. LOFTUS & PALMER Experiment 1 <ul><li>What conclusion can you draw from the findings? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the IV? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the DV? </li></ul>
  • 14. EYE WITNESS TESTIMONY <ul><li>The second experiment by </li></ul><ul><li>Loftus & Palmer </li></ul>
  • 15. LOFTUS & PALMER - Experiment 2 <ul><li>The participants - 150 students </li></ul><ul><li>The procedure - Students watched a one minute film which showed a 4 second multiple car accident </li></ul>
  • 16. LOFTUS & PALMER - Experiment 2 <ul><li>After the film </li></ul><ul><li>The participants were divided into </li></ul><ul><li>THREE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS </li></ul>
  • 17. LOFTUS & PALMER - Experiment 2 <ul><li>GROUP 1 was asked </li></ul><ul><li>How fast were the cars going when they HIT each other? </li></ul>
  • 18. LOFTUS & PALMER - Experiment 2 <ul><li>GROUP 2 was asked </li></ul><ul><li>How fast were the cars going when they SMASHED INTO each other? </li></ul>
  • 19. LOFTUS & PALMER - Experiment 2 <ul><li>GROUP 3 was asked </li></ul><ul><li>NO QUESTION about the speed of the cars </li></ul>
  • 20. LOFTUS & PALMER - Experiment 2 <ul><li>ONE WEEK LATER </li></ul><ul><li>The participants returned and were asked more questions </li></ul><ul><li>Including the critical question </li></ul><ul><li>Did you see any broken glass? </li></ul>
  • 21. LOFTUS & PALMER - Experiment 2 <ul><li>The findings </li></ul><ul><li>Which group saw more broken glass? </li></ul>
  • 22. LOFTUS & PALMER - Experiment 2 <ul><li>What was the DV in the second experiment? </li></ul><ul><li>What conclusion can you draw from the findings? </li></ul>
  • 23. LOFTUS & PALMER <ul><li>Was this research in any way unethical? </li></ul><ul><li>Did this research have ECOLOGICAL validity? </li></ul><ul><li>Was this a repeated measures design? </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>An independent measures design? </li></ul>
  • 24. LOFTUS & PALMER <ul><li>Read the study </li></ul><ul><li>In your general text, read up on what psychologists say about human memory </li></ul><ul><li>According to Loftus & Palmer (in the 2 nd experiment) how did the leading question ‘change’ the memory ? </li></ul>
  • 25. Eye Witness testimony <ul><li>Do you think that UNSUPPORTED EYE WITNESS TESTIMONY should be sufficient evidence upon which to convict someone? </li></ul>
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