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1. Bennett-Levy and Marteau (1984) “ Fear of animals: what is prepared?” <ul><li>This is a context lesson for this study.…
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  • 1. Bennett-Levy and Marteau (1984) “ Fear of animals: what is prepared?” <ul><li>This is a context lesson for this study. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a physiological core study </li></ul>
  • 2. Evolutionary Explanations of Mental Disorders Anxiety Disorders-phobias What you need to know: What is a phobia? How does evolutionary theory explain phobias? What are the strengths and limitations of these explanations, including evidence?
  • 3. Evolutionary Explanations of Mental Disorders What is a phobia? Persistent fear of object or situation Unreasonable fear level Stress response Failure to function adequately Agoraphobia Social phobia Specific phobias Spiders, snakes, buttons and bananas
  • 4. Evolutionary Explanations of Mental Disorders Anxiety Disorders-phobias In the EEA it would have benefited our ancestors to have an inbuilt fear response for dangerous things and situations. Those that possessed this response would be more likely to survive to go on and reproduce those genes. Examples include snakes, spiders, heights and water. These are all common phobias and environmental dangers. Today we still have these fears although they may no longer be relevant. Key terms=Ancestral hazards or phylogenetically relevant stimuli
  • 5. Evolutionary Explanations of Mental Disorders Explanations of phobias Seligman- preparedness We are more likely to have a phobia for some things over others.We appear to be pre-programmed to be sensitive to certain stimuli- this is called preparedness. Cars are much more dangerous to us today but we are more likely to have a phobia of a snake which we may never have contact with. Phobias can be learnt some more quickly than others. E.g taste or predator aversion- WHY?
  • 6. Evolutionary Explanations of Mental Disorders Evidence on preparedness <ul><li>Evidence For </li></ul><ul><li>Hunt 1995-monkeys raised in labs have no fear of snakes and will reach over one to get to a banana. After watching one video of another monkey showing fear to a snake once, they developed a lasting phobia of snakes.THIS DID NOT HAPPEN WHEN SHOWN VIDEO OF MONKEY SCARED OF FLOWER, THERE WAS NO FLOWER PHOBIA </li></ul><ul><li>Modern phobias such as fear of flying can relate to old ones such as fear of heights </li></ul>
  • 7. Evolutionary Explanations of Mental Disorders Possible explanation? Genome Lag or exile from Eden Hypothesis Over last 10,000 years humans have changed their environment so radically, evolution hasn’t been able to keep up. Stone Age genes in Space Age culture What was adaptive in EEA is now maladaptive Is life really that different- we still strive for same things? What the…??
  • 8. Evolutionary Explanations of Mental Disorders Evidence for evolutionary explanations of phobias The Adaptive Conservatism Hypothesis OR “ Why are we more anxious than we need be?” We may be inclined to be over anxious because it benefits us to be. Better safe than sorry? The advantage lies with the animal with the more finely tuned anxiety response. A slower response may mean death a quick response may mean missed meals!
  • 9. Evolutionary Explanations of Mental Disorders Evidence for evolutionary explanations of phobias Twin studies Solyom et al (1974) found of 47 phobic patients 30% had mothers with phobias compared to 19% for control group. Torgerson (1983) investigated panic disorder and agoraphobia in twins and found 31% concordance in 13 MZ twins 0% in 16 DZ twins. Although none shared the same phobia type.
  • 10. Evolutionary Explanations of Mental Disorders Evidence against Twin studies can not distinguish between nature and nurture, conclusively. It is likely that some phobias have been learnt and they can be easily unlearnt- the most successful cures are behavioural. We don’t all have a fear of ancestral hazards.
  • 11. Aims of Bennett-Levy and Marteau’s (1984) study “ Fear of animals: what is prepared?” 12m <ul><li>To investigate whether there is a correlation between perceived fear of an animal ( measured by nearness and fearness) and other co variables such as whether it was an ancestral hazard ( species specific preparedness ) or speed, ugliness, strangeness or sliminess ( perceptual characteristics preparedness ). </li></ul><ul><li>This tests the species specific preparedness theory of Seligman and evolutionary theory in general. </li></ul>
  • 12. Activity- Bennett-Levy and Marteau (1984) “ Fear of animals what is prepared?” <ul><li>Insert the 10 </li></ul><ul><li>main points of </li></ul><ul><li>presentation </li></ul><ul><li>in order </li></ul><ul><li>of importance </li></ul>Include images to help you remember the main points
  • 13. Bennett-Levy and Marteau (1984) “ Fear of animals: what is prepared?” <ul><li>Describe the context and aims of Bennett-Levy and Marteau’s (1984) study “ Fear of animals: what is prepared?” 12m </li></ul>Demonstrate- Try this question in 15 minutes.
  • 14. Describe the context and aims of Bennett-Levy and Marteau’s (1984) study “ Fear of animals: what is prepared?” 12m <ul><li>A phobia is………… for example…………………. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been suggested that ancestral hazards may explain……….. </li></ul><ul><li>Seligman used the term preparedness which means……………….. </li></ul><ul><li>Hunt provided evidence for this by…………………… </li></ul><ul><li>The AC Hypothesis supports this…. </li></ul><ul><li>Phobias are not adaptive now but this can be explained by genome lag which says that………………………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>Twin studies have shown………………………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>However it has been suggested that we are not afraid of species but…………….. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore the aim of Bennett-Levy and Marteau’s (1984) study “ Fear of animals: what is prepared?” </li></ul>
  • 15. Bennett-Levy and Marteau (1984) “ Fear of animals: what is prepared?” <ul><li>Review – </li></ul><ul><li>What findings do you expect to see next lesson? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions do you have about today’s lesson? Think of one each. </li></ul>
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    Jul 23, 2017
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