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1. Attachment <ul><li>“ The formation of a strong, reciprocal emotional bond between an infant and a primary caregiver” </li></ul> 2.…
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  • 1. Attachment <ul><li>“ The formation of a strong, reciprocal emotional bond between an infant and a primary caregiver” </li></ul>
  • 2. Attachment <ul><li>Behaviours that indicate attachment (Maccoby, 1980): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity seeking (especially when stressed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation distress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pleasure when reunited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General orientation towards specific individual </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Benefits Of Attachments <ul><li>Immediate:-Adaptive Value / Ainsworth </li></ul><ul><li>Long Term :- Romantic Relationships, Friendships, Relationships with own children. </li></ul>
  • 4. In Summary <ul><li>Research evidence suggests </li></ul><ul><li>that early attachments form a basis for later relationships but other factor determine how children cope with later relationships – e.g. divorce, individual differences, cultural, experiences, moving school frequently but </li></ul><ul><li>Not all agree ( Harris, 1998)– an alternative is that we have an innate temperament. </li></ul>
  • 5. Development of Attachments <ul><li>When do attachments form? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do they vary over time? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who does the child attach to? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What influences choice of attachment figure? </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Formation of Bond between parents and Babies <ul><li>Text book pages 46 -47 </li></ul>
  • 7. Development of Attachments <ul><li>Shaffer & Emerson (1964) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal study in natural environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations & diary records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied 60 babies in Glasgow, visitng them monthly for the first year and then returning again at 18 months. </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Schaffer and Emerson (1964) <ul><ul><li>Measured attachment via </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) separation Anxiety- If the baby showed anxiety or distress when the caregiver left them –the baby had formed an attachment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>; (2) stranger distress- if the baby showed signs of distress when approached by someone thyme didn’t know. </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Development of Attachments <ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First attachment usually formed by 8 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stranger anxiety usually 1 month later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment strength peaks during first month </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Development of Attachment <ul><li>Who do babies form their first attachment? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>65% mother only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% mother & another (often father) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>39% the person who mostly cared for the child was not the child's primary attachment figure. </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Criticisms of study <ul><li>Methodological </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical </li></ul>
  • 12. Attachment <ul><ul><li>Responsiveness, play and social interaction matter most in attachment formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not necessarily person who fed, changed, washed or spent most time with child </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Comments & Criticisms <ul><li>Infants may have stronger preferences than Shaffer and others allow for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infants show preference for mothers face within 24 hrs of birth (Bushnell et al, 1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other evidence suggests recognition of mother’s voice & scent in neonatal – Bushnell, Sai and Mullen (1989) 2/3rds of babies recognise mother a few days after birth. </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Comments & Criticisms <ul><li>Attachment may correlate with development, not strictly age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ugandan children show stranger anxiety earlier, also begin crawling earlier (Ainsworth, 1967) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation between attachment and mobility makes evolutionary sense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, most evidence suggests that Shaffer’s work is very robust – sequence is important. </li></ul>
  • 15. Bowlby’s Development of attachment The infant develops insight into the primary caregivers behaviour and can consciously influence what he or she does. This marks the beginning of a relationship that is a more equal partnership . The infant seeks proximity to the attachment figure and uses them as a secure base. The infant is distressed when separated from the attachment figure. While still generally friendly the infant starts to show a preference towards one primary caregiver. The infant is friendly towards people but shows little indiscrimination between them Stage 4- 2 years onwards Stage 3 - 6 months to 2 years Stage 2 – 8 weeks to 6 months Stage 1- Birth to 8 weeks
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