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1. Pages 238-241 (Nelson Thornes) 2. <ul><li>Adult behaviour is influenced by childhood experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Complex dynamic…
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  • 1. Pages 238-241 (Nelson Thornes)
  • 2. <ul><li>Adult behaviour is influenced by childhood experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Complex dynamic interactions between conscious and unconscious processes take place </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on two key elements: </li></ul><ul><li>A model of the human personality </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed theory of psychosexual development in childhood </li></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>The psychodynamic approach is one of the earliest approaches in psychology, originating in the 19 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>The main figure in psychodynamic theory is Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Freud was trained as a neurologist- biological approach to illness </li></ul><ul><li>Treated mostly hysteria and applied findings from abnormal patients to “normal” development </li></ul><ul><li>Time period: late 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>Victorian times: conservative, repressed society, male dominated society </li></ul>
  • 4. <ul><ul><li>According to psychodynamic theory, we have an ‘unconscious’ mind which influences our behaviour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our conscious mind is unaware of what thoughts and emotions occur in the unconscious. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, these unconscious thoughts and feelings can have an effect on our conscious mind. This is one of the key themes in psychodynamic theory </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. The conscious. The small amount of mental activity we know about. (e.g. thoughts, perceptions) The preconscious . Things we could be aware of if we wanted or tried. E.g. Memories, Stored knowledge The unconscious . Things we are unaware of and can not become aware of. (e.g. instincts, deeply buried memories) THE CONSCIOUS, PRECONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS
  • 6. <ul><li>Psychodynamic psychologists see behaviour as the result of a compromise between three parts of the psyche (personality) </li></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>The id is the “selfish beast” part of the personality </li></ul><ul><li>It is contained in the unconscious part of the mind </li></ul><ul><li>The id uses the “primary process” to satisfy its needs </li></ul><ul><li>The id operates according to the “ pleasure principle” </li></ul><ul><li>It springs from two instinctive drives that all humans possess – Eros , which is fuelled by psychic energy called libido , and Thanatos which is the death instinct </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>The superego is the conscience and ego ideal </li></ul><ul><li>The superego is a “relentless policeman” and continues to insist that we do the “right thing” </li></ul><ul><li>The superego opposes the desires of the id </li></ul><ul><li>The superego enforces moral restrictions and battles against id impulses </li></ul><ul><li>It develops later in childhood through identification with one or other parent, at which point the child internalises the moral rules and social norms of society </li></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>The ego is the executive of the personality </li></ul><ul><li>The ego uses its cognitive abilities to manage and control the Id and balance its desires against the restrictions of reality and the superego </li></ul><ul><li>The ego operates according to the “ reality principle ” </li></ul><ul><li>The ego defends itself from id-superego struggles via various defence mechanisms </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>The ego needs to balance the demands of the id and superego – if it fails it may result in conflicts and psychological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Intra-psychic conflict: conflict between the components of the psyche can lead to anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>The ego tries to avoid anxiety and uses ego defence mechanisms to maintain a balance in relation to the id and superego </li></ul>
  • 11. <ul><li>The ego uses many defence mechanisms to protect it from id-superego conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>These include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>denial, repression and displacement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your task: </li></ul><ul><li>Use p. 239 of your book and write a description of these three defence mechanisms </li></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>Everyone uses defence mechanisms from time to time </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive use of defence mechanisms will, over time, result in the ego becoming increasingly detached from reality and, in time, can cause psychological disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalysis involves effort to understand defences and unconscious motives driving self-destructive behaviours </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>The importance of early childhood experiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic theory states that events in our childhood have a great influence on our adult lives, shaping our personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Events that occur in childhood can remain in the unconscious, and cause problems as adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freud proposed that all children go through the same five stages of development. </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. <ul><li>Children pass through a series of age-dependent stages during development </li></ul><ul><li>Each stage has a designated “pleasure zone” and “primary activity” </li></ul><ul><li>Each stage requires resolution of a particular conflict/task </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to successfully navigate a stage’s particular conflict/ task is known as fixation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaving some energy in a stage </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. <ul><li>Growing up, as viewed by the psychoanalytic theory, is a passage through the five psychosexual stages </li></ul><ul><li>The 5 stages are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the oral stage: 0-1 year of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the anal stage: 1-3 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the phallic stage: 3-6 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the latent stage: 6-11 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the genital stage: 12+ years of age </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>Fixation (getting stuck) at any one of the stages determines our adult character, personality and behavioural traits. </li></ul><ul><li>If this happens, traces of that stage will remain in their behaviour as an adult </li></ul><ul><li>Fixation may occur due to trauma, pleasant or unpleasant experiences, change in environment etc </li></ul>
  • 17. <ul><li>Use p.240-241 to draw a table summarising Freud’s stages </li></ul>Stage Age Description of stage Fixation at this stage may result in this behaviour oral anal phallic latency
  • 18. <ul><li>The approach emphasises the importance of unconscious factors in determining behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>It draws attention to the importance of childhood experiences on later behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Freud’s theory provided unique insight into human behaviour – the idea of unconscious motivation has gained widespread support </li></ul><ul><li>The approach does have useful applications especially in therapy </li></ul>
  • 19. <ul><li>Freud’s theory is largely derived from the study of adults with emotional disorders – an extremely unrepresentative sample. </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on case studies and techniques that are subjective and open to bias </li></ul><ul><li>It is unscientific as the ideas cannot be refuted </li></ul><ul><li>Freud over-emphasises the role of instincts in human behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic therapy is difficult to evaluate – it is extremely long term and it is possible that an individual may recover of their own accord during this time </li></ul><ul><li>The approach is deterministic and pessimistic </li></ul>
  • 20. <ul><li>From p. 241 of your text books write three of the evaluation points of the psychodynamic approach to abnormal behaviour </li></ul>
  • 21. <ul><li>Therapy benefits through release of pent-up tensions, “catharsis” </li></ul><ul><li>Some inherent value in the “talking cure”- being able to “unload”, or “get stuff off your mind” </li></ul>
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