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1. Starter Activity – who would give the most accurate eyewitness account and why? 2. Other factors that influence EWT Age 3. Lesson ObjectivesMust: Understand how age…
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  • 1. Starter Activity – who would give the most accurate eyewitness account and why?
  • 2. Other factors that influence EWT Age
  • 3. Lesson ObjectivesMust: Understand how age affects the accuracyrecall in EWT.Should: Be able to use research to show howthe above.Could: Answer exam based questions in context.
  • 4. Poole & Lindsay (2001)Children aged 3 – 8 years were shown a sciencedemonstration. The parents of the children readthem a story which contained elements of thescience demonstration but also included novel(new) information. The children were thenquestioned about the demonstration and it wasfound that they included much of the novelinformation from the story.
  • 5. Poole & Lindsay (2001)In another phase of the experiment the childrenwere asked to think very carefully about where theyhad got the information from (this is called sourcemonitoring) and some of the older children thenrevised their account of the science experiment andextracted the post-event information. Howeveryounger children did not seem able to do this. Thishas important implications for measuring theaccuracy of small children’s testimony since theyseem very poor at source monitoring.
  • 6. Your TaskCan you think of any methodological A02 for this study?Discuss & bullet point in pairs – feedback.
  • 7. A02A criticism of this research is that children maynot be able to give informed consent on theirown behalf. Parents must give informed consentbut, in this case, it was helpful that the parentswere involved as well and so the children werewith familiar people and less susceptible toinvestigator effects.
  • 8. Exam Question 2011 Psychologists carried out a laboratory experiment to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive interviews. All participants watched the same film of a robbery. They were randomly allocated to Group One or Group Two. Participants were then asked to recall the robbery. The investigators used a cognitive interview to access recall ofparticipants in Group One and a standard interview to access recall of participants in Group Two. What is meant by the term investigator effects? Explain possible investigator effects in this study. ( 4 marks)
  • 9. Mark SchemeInvestigator effects occur when the researcher’s behaviour or characteristics influencethe research in some way. This includes the way the presence of the researcher mayinfluence the participants. 0 marks for an incorrect answer or one which simply restates the words eg “how the investigator effects research.”1 mark very brief or muddled answer eg the researcher’s influence.Maximum 2 marks for an accurate understanding of investigator effects butno reference to this experiment.Candidates whose explanation of possible investigator effects in this experimentshows understanding of the term can be awarded 4 marks, even though there is noseparate definition. Eg The psychologist may expect the cognitive interview to bemore effective than the standard interview. This may be unconsciously communicatedto the participants though mannerisms such as smiling or frowning. (4 marks) Thereare different routes to 4 marks. Candidates could be stronger on definitions orstronger on application.
  • 10. A02In support of this Gordon et al (2001) found thatyoung children can provide detailed andaccurate witness statements, but they areparticularly susceptible to suggestion and theiraccounts should be viewed with caution.
  • 11. A02Conversely Davies (1994) believes that some ofthe differences between child and adultwitnesses have been overstated and thatchildren can provide valuable testimonyprovided care is taken in the interviewingprocess.
  • 12. A02There is some evidence to suggest that elderlypeople are more prone to errors of recall thanyounger adults. Yarmey (1984) found that whenasked questions about a stage event, 80% ofelderly participants compared to 20% ofyounger adults failed to mention that theattacker had a knife in his hand.
  • 13. A02Additionally Cohen & Faulkner (1989) showed a filmof a kidnapping to groups of middle aged andelderly participants. They then read a narrativeaccount of the scene they had just witnessed. Forhalf the participants, the narrative account wasconsistent with the film and for the other half thenarrative account contained incorrect information.In a later recall test the elderly participants werefound to have been more susceptible to the effectsof misleading information.
  • 14. Your TaskUse a textbook to find one more study that looks about age and EWT. 5 minutes then feedback.
  • 15. Own Age EffectApparent age effects may be due to the factthat people do best when asked to identifypeople of their own age group. Rhodes (2006)demonstrated this by using photographsrepresenting three different age groups, whichwere shown to young, middle aged, and olderparticipants. Recognition rates for each group werebest when identifying own – age photographs.
  • 16. Essay Plans – Your Task Make a bullet point list of how you would answer the following question:To what extent does age influence the accuracy of eyewitness accounts? (12 marks)
  • 17. Essay PlanA01 – Outline of Poole & Lindsay (2001) –Children & the science demonstration.A02 – Ethics & children.A02 – Support - Gordon et al & Davies (1994)(2001) – caution needed.A01 - Yarmey (1984) – Elderly participants.A02 - Support - Cohen & Faulkner (1989)Susceptible to misleading information.
  • 18. And finally – Using Psychologicalresearch, answer the following question. How does age influence the accuracy of EWT (4 marks).
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