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1. Becoming a sceptic <ul><li>Don't believe everything you read. Read 'Bad science' column in the Saturday Guardian to gain an insight into how…
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  • 1. Becoming a sceptic <ul><li>Don't believe everything you read. Read 'Bad science' column in the Saturday Guardian to gain an insight into how we are being sold down the river regularly. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about; </li></ul><ul><li>What is the source? </li></ul><ul><li>Who paid for the research? </li></ul><ul><li>Where was it published? - even if it was published in the world famous science journal, Nature, you can't be sure it is accurate. Even scientists have been know to lie. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the evidence and how was it obtained? The importance of methodology </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of peer review </li></ul><ul><li>Is there any possible bias? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we explain the results in other way? </li></ul>
  • 2. Autism and Theory of Mind <ul><ul><li>BARON-COHEN, S., JOLLIFFE, T., MORTIMORE, C. & ROBERTSON, M. (1997) Another advanced test of theory of mind: evidence from very high functioning adults with autism or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asperger syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 38: 813–822 </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Background 1 <ul><li>Children need to learn how to socialise to function in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Learnt through interactions with family at the start. </li></ul><ul><li>Proto-conversations, motherese, eye-contact, mirroring </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget's stages of development, 2-7years of age children are egocentric – more about this when we do developmental section. </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between selfish and self-centred. </li></ul><ul><li>Toddler tantrums typify this behaviour. </li></ul>
  • 4. Background 2 <ul><li>Piaget's ideas about egocentrism have since been partially discredited by other studies which have show that children as young as 4 can see things from the point of view of the other. </li></ul><ul><li>The problems were caused by the testing environment and the language Piaget used – sticking to the script and asking the same question more than once. </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting research in unfamiliar environments is likely to produce artificial results, one related to the environment rather than the independent variable. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to look at relationships in their social and cultural contexts. (Hind, 1987)‏ </li></ul>
  • 5. Background 3 <ul><li>Stern (1977) suggested that children as young as 1 yr old can tune into moods of others. A baby will cry if its mother cries and laugh is she laughs. This, Stern suggests, becomes more highly developed in the second and third years. </li></ul><ul><li>Children are learning about emotions and their appropriateness in this way. They are also learning about the emotions of others. This leads to a development of a theory of mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Wimmer and Perner (1983) investigated when this develops by using a story acted out by dolls. 'Where will Maxi look for his chocolate when he comes back?' </li></ul>
  • 6. Background 4 <ul><li>If a child has no idea about other peoples' minds then they will find interacting with them very difficult. They don't know how the other is responding to them and this can be distressing. </li></ul><ul><li>'Does my bum look big in this?' </li></ul><ul><li>What is Autism? </li></ul><ul><li>Often referred to as a communication disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of understanding of the feeling's of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflexibility of thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming obsessed with something. </li></ul>
  • 7. Autism continued <ul><li>Rare condition, becoming more frequently diagnosed. 1-2 children in 1000 (Frith, 1993). </li></ul><ul><li>More boys have it than girls, 3 boys to every 1 girl (ratio 1:3). </li></ul><ul><li>In public eye recently due to a doctor linking it with the MMR triple vaccine. This has later been suggested strongly to not be a true connection (He used correlations). See www.bmj.org http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/329/7473/1049?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=autism&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT </li></ul><ul><li>It has a wide range of degrees to which sufferers can be affected. </li></ul><ul><li>At the most sever end the child will be very disabled. </li></ul><ul><li>The savant can have a very high IQ but others perform very badly at all tasks. </li></ul>
  • 8. Research into Autism <ul><li>Sacks (1995) case study of Temple Grandin, lecturer Colorado state University in cattle behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>First described by Kanner (1943), not accepted as a diagnosis until 1980. Was though to be a form of childhood schizophrenia until then. </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria for diagnosis identified by Kanner; </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to form relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of spontaneous play – pretend play especially </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormalities in development of language and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessive interest in routines and interests. </li></ul>
  • 9. Wild child? <ul><li>Watch the video clip about the feral children. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have time read the book 'The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time' by Mark Haddon. </li></ul><ul><li>Read about Victor, bottom p43 in text book. </li></ul><ul><li>What causes autism? Nature/Nurture? Blame was originally put on the mother, see OU book 'Introduction to psychology, vol 2 ed Iloner Roth ' </li></ul><ul><li>What is causing the increase? Better diagnosis? Increased awareness? Modern living? Poor parenting? </li></ul>
  • 10. Method <ul><li>Test 3 groups; </li></ul><ul><li>1) participants with autism/AS, normal intelligence (how do they measure this?), 13 male, 3 female. </li></ul><ul><li>2) 50 normal adults age matched </li></ul><ul><li>3) Tourette syndrome (TS), age matched, 8 male and 2 female. </li></ul><ul><li>2 and 3 were controls </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks: forced choice questions about emotions in eyes, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strange stories task, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gender recognition of eyes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basic emotion recognition. </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Method 2 <ul><li>Why were TS participants used as controls? See p45 </li></ul><ul><li>What are first and second order false belief tests? What do they show? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the procedures for the 3 sets of tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>What does concurrent validity mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Homework 1; </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the questions on p45 </li></ul>
  • 12. Results <ul><li>Copy the results table on p 46 </li></ul><ul><li>What does it show? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does Baron-Cohen calculate what the participant could have scored if they were just guessing? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do females score better than males? - this is a theory you have just come up with, how could you test it? </li></ul>
  • 13. Discussion <ul><li>What do the results show? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this caused by low intelligence? - How do we know? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it caused by just any developmental neuropsychiatric disorder? - How do we know? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it due to difficulty interpreting context? How do we know? </li></ul>
  • 14. Evaluation <ul><li>What explanations of the ToM task not measuring what it is supposed to can you give? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the participants differ from the general population? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the ToM task not ecologically valid? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the results, do the ranges overlap? By how much? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the method quasi-experimental? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of data was collected? </li></ul><ul><li>What applications are there? </li></ul><ul><li>What next? </li></ul>
  • 15. More studies <ul><li>Lovaas program began in 1970's. 40 hours of therapy per week on a 1 to 1 basis for 2 years. Controversial and expensive, a team of therapists is needed for each child. </li></ul><ul><li>The sex difference (Kunzig, 2004 noted that it has been ignored). Baren-Cohen said that males and females think differently. Autism is due to low empathising and high systematising – an extreme of the male brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated communication – is this real, who is communicating? </li></ul><ul><li>Baron-Cohen has carried out many studies </li></ul><ul><li>Recent article in New Scientist. -see PC'd article </li></ul>
  • 16. More homework <ul><li>Try all the questions on page 49 </li></ul><ul><li>Read and study the key issue:qualitative and quantitative data on pages 50-51. Carry out all the activities and answer all the questions. </li></ul>
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