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1. Memory Revision – Use Cardwell, Clark & Meldrum AS 4th edn<br />Glossary – complete these definitions, using the following: form in which it can be…
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  • 1. Memory Revision – Use Cardwell, Clark & Meldrum AS 4th edn<br />Glossary – complete these definitions, using the following: form in which it can be processed; storing; amount; time<br />MemoryThe mental processes involved in registering, ____________ _____ ____ and retrieving information.EncodingChanging sensory input into a ______________________________ and stored by the memory system.CapacityThe ______________________________ of information that can be stored in memory at any particular time.DurationThe length of ______________________________ that information can be kept in memory.<br />Differences between short-term and long-term memoryAdd as much detail as you can, eg Miller 7±2, to complete this table<br />STMLTMCapacityDurationEncoding <br />Multi-store model of memory How we store memory<br />The multi-store model of memory, described by A______________ & S__________<br />image from accessed 28.8.08<br /> Write a sentence explaining how this model works. Refer to: Flow of information, attention, rehearsal, retrieval(you could also write a longer version, in which you add detail eg by referring to the capacity, duration and main mode of encoding of each store)<br />Evaluation of the multi-store model of memory – is it a good explanation?<br /><ul><li>Explain why the following support the model: Explain why the following do not support the model: (one is done for you)The case study of Clive Wearing …Memory is complexGlanzer & Cunitz’s ‘serial position effect’ … Focuses on structure Brain scansMorris et al (1985) study of football and memory shows there is an interactive flow of information between STM and LTM (football fans remember more football scores) and not a one-way flow as the model suggests.</li></ul>Working memory model How we use memory in our thinking<br />B__________________ & H____________ (1974)<br />Central executiveControls a_______________and subsidiary ____________<br /> <br />Phonological loopRehearses ________ _________________Stores __________Visuo-spatial scratch pad Stores ____________<br />533400073660Episodic bufferTemporary storage<br />Visuo-s <br />29432253035305334000103505-209550103505<br />VisualEpisodicLanguageLONG-TERM MEMORY<br />Write a description of how the model explains how we use memory in our thinking – you could refer to an example such as buying a jacket or counting the windows in your house.<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />_________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />_________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />_________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />_________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />__________________________________________________________________________________<br />_________________________________________________________________________________<br />Evaluation of the working memory model – is it a good explanation of memory?<br />Use CCM pp 93-94<br /><ul><li>Explain why the following support the model: Explain why the following do not support the model: (one is done for you)The model can explain our ability to carry out tasks such as mental arithmetic …The main weakness is that the component we know least about (the central executive) is the most important. It has a limited capacity, but no one has been able to quantify it experimentally.The ‘word-length effect’ Baddeley et al (1975) supports the phonological loop …. (CCM p 82) …According to Richardson (1984) terminology used to describe …-3365501925320-228600763270The study by Baddeley et al (1973) in which Pps had to track a moving spot of light with a pointer (a visual task), whilst imagining a block capital F and classifying each corner (another visual task). Pps found this very difficult, but could do the tracking task and also do a verbal task. This supports the visuo-spatial scratch pad.Falsification of the model (ability to test scientifically) is a problem because …</li></ul>Memory in Everyday Life – Eyewitness Testimony<br />Eyewitness testimony (EWT) is an area of memory research that investigates the accuracy of ….<br />You must be able to explain the effects of two factors on EWT: <br /><ul><li>anxiety, and
  • 2. the age of the witness</li></ul>A key researcher in EWT is Elizabeth Loftus, whose research showed the effect of leading questions. In one of her studies, 5 groups of Pps were asked one key question about film of a car crash, in which 1 word was – either smashed …The findings showed that the effect of the leading question was …<br />501967559055<br />The role of anxiety<br />The Weapon focus CCM p 98Loftus’ research showed the effect of anxiety which can occur when a weapon is present. Pps experienced one of two situations …Heard a low-key discussion, then say a man emerge with a pen and greasy hands OR5124450147955…The findings were …This is known as the weapon focus because …One way of explaining this could be Yerkes-Dodson’s ‘inverted U’ law of arousal, which says that performance improves as arousal increases, up to an optimum point, after which it deteriorates. So if we are really anxious, our memory will not be very good.2543176-635<br />If Yerkes-Dodson’s law of arousal can be applied to EWT, as Loftus’ weapon focus suggests, what do real-life experiences show? What were the findings of Yuille & Cutshall (1986)? CCM p 97 (You could also outline the findings of Christianson and Hubinette (1993) on p 98Explain the difference in the findings, with reference to the validity of the research.<br />The age of the witness<br />Children According to Carter et al, children were more likely to respond to questions in legalese by answering accurately/innacurately?Samuel & Bryant’s (1984) findings show that children will change their answer/keep their answer the same if asked a question twice?Further research shows that children shown photos of suspects, will select one even if they do not recognise anyone/because they recognise someone?Older adults Wright & Holliday (2005) found that the police believe older adults are more/less reliable?Brimacombe et al (1997) found that older adults are more/less accurate?<br />Misleading information and the Cognitive Interview<br />Research by Elizabeth Loftus showed that misleading information can change memory for events.<br />Loftus (1975 showed Pps film of a car accident. How were the two groups questioned, and what were the findings? (CCM p 104)<br />What happens if witnesses are given misinformation that is blatantly incorrect? CCM p 104-5<br />The cognitive interview - Geiselman et al (1985)<br />Geiselman et al (1985) developed the Cognitive Interview Schedule for use by the police. The main features are (explain each one)<br />Context <br />Order<br />Perspective<br />4876800191135<br />Detail<br />Cognitive interviewStandard interviewCorrect items41.529.4Incorrect items7.36.1Confabulated terms0.70.4 <br />Research on the cognitive interview – Geiselman (1988) CCM p 107<br />Evaluate the Cognitive Interview:Bekerian & Dennett (1993 reviewed 27 studies and found (CCM p 107)Holliday (2003) investigated use with children (CCM p 107)Strategies for memory improvement<br />Organization<br />Bower et al’s research showed that organizing material into meaningful patterns made it easier to remember.<br />Outline the procedures used by Bower.<br />The reason this makes material easier to remember is (see CCM p 109)<br />Another form of organization involves the use of a story. Bower & Clark asled Pps tp memorize 12 lists of 10 unrelated words by organizing each list into a story. When tested later, Pps could recall more than 90% of the words, compared to a control group who could recall only 10%!Fill the gaps, using the words belowStudies like this have been ___________________ for lacking realism. In exams, for example, you are not required to learn lists of unrelated words and the material you are expected to recall is already organized. However, the ___________________ remains the same – by ___________________ aspects of a topic and ___________________ between topics you will ___________________ of the material and remember it ___________________. As you may recall, ___________________ encoding is preferred in LTM.organizingsemantic (meaningfulness)principleseeing linkscriticizedbetterincreasing the meaningfulness <br />ACRONYMS are a type of mnemonic, where one word is made from the initial letters of words you want to remember eg COP’D for the main features of the cognitive interview, or MASTIC for key features of Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment (Monotropic, Adaptive, Social releasers, Template, Innate, Critical period). This works because you only have to remember one word, and that one word then provides memory cues for all the words you need to recall.<br />One reason that memory strategies work is context-dependent retrieval. This was demonstrated in research by Godden & Baddeley (1975). Outline the procedures and findings of this research: <br />Glossary<br />Add any words you don’t know, and find a definition in your text book.<br />WordDefinition<br />
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