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1.  Recall the Dement and Kleitman’s study Explain the difference between REM and N-REM sleep Recognise the different schools of thought behind the explanation…
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  • 1.  Recall the Dement and Kleitman’s study Explain the difference between REM and N-REM sleep Recognise the different schools of thought behind the explanation of dreams
  • 2.  There are five stages of sleep, each one occurs in a recurring cycle of 90 to 110 minutes.
  • 3. a) Relaxed wakefulness (eyes shut) shows rhythmic 8–12 Hertz alpha waves.
  • 4. This lasts around 10 minutes. Our muscleactivity slows down and slight twitching mayoccur, we can be awakened easily at thisstage.b) Stage 1 non-REM sleep shows mixed frequencies, especially 3–7 Hertz theta waves.
  • 5. This lasts around 20 minutes. The breathingpattern and heart rate start to slow down.c) Stage 2 non-REM sleep shows 12–14 Hertz sleep spindles and K-complexes.
  • 6. This lasts 40–50 minutes and the brain begins toproduce delta waves, a type of wave that is highamplitude and low frequency. Breathing andheart rate are at their lowest levels.d) Delta sleep shows large-amplitude (>75 μV) 0.5–2 Hertz delta waves.
  • 7. This lasts about 20 minutes and the brain is veryactive – often more so than when we areawake.e) REM sleep shows low-amplitude, mixed frequencies with sawtooth waves.
  • 8.  To rigorously test relation between eye movements and dreams woIRD11M
  • 9. 1. Participants woken during REM sleep are more likely to recall dreams.2. Participants woken after 5 or 15 minutes will be able to say how long they have been dreaming.3. Eye movements will link to the content of recalled dream.
  • 10. Independent Variables  Whether woken in REM or non-REM sleep  Whether woken after 5 or 15 minutes  Movement of eyesDependent variables  Whether dream recalled  Estimate of length of dreaming  Content of dream
  • 11.  Nine adults › seven males › two females › five studied intensively › four studied for minimal data to confirm findings from five studied intensively
  • 12.  The participants studied under controlled laboratory conditions › Reported to lab before usual bedtime › Told to eat normally but avoid caffeine or alcohol › Went to bed in a dark, quiet room An electroencephalograph (EEG) used to amplify and record the signals of electrodes which were attached to the participants face and scalp. › Two or more electrodes were attached near to the eyes to record electrical changes caused by eye movement. › Two or three further electrodes attached to the scalp to record brain activity which indicated the participants’ depth of sleep. At various times during the night (both during REM and N-REM sleep) the participants were awakened to test their dream recall.  Woken by a loud doorbell ringing close to their bed.  Spoke into a tape recorder near the bed about whether or not they had been dreaming and then, if they could, to report the content of the dream.
  • 13.  Mainly vertical eye movements Mainly horizontal eye movements Both vertical and horizontal eye movements Very little or no movement
  • 14.  It is most likely that REM sleep is the only time we dream. Dreams progress over time rather than happen spontaneously. The pattern of the REMs was related to the visual imagery of the dream.
  • 15.  Gzc3x9WJU
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