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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

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   Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky 1840-1893 life ã Born into middle-class family(father engineer, mother french ancestry) ã educated for a career as a civil servant but at 23 decided to study at new St. Petersburg Conservatory after a year of classes in music theory organized by the Russian Musical Society and taught by Nikolai Zaremba. . Post at the (also new) Moscow Conservatory with Nicholas Rubenstein as professor of theory and harmony. ã Success throughout Europe and United states and travels. ã Emotional distress after unsuccessful marriage and lost of his patronage ã Death from cholera or suicide Music Wrote Ballets, operas, symphonies, concertos, programme music, chamber music, choral music, works for piano. He wrote several works well known among the general classical public — Romeo and Juliet, the 1812 Overture, his three ballets The Nutcracker, Swan Lake, and The Sleeping Beauty. These, along with two of his four concertos, three of his six symphonies (seven if his program symphony Manfred is included) and two of his 10 operas, are probably among his most familiar works. Almost as popular are the Manfred Symphony, Francesca da Rimini, the Capriccio Italien and the Serenade for Strings .  characteristics ã Structure: Use of classical forms as a result of his western education(?) ex.(symphonies, operas, concertos , symphonic poems(fatum )…,variations on a rococo theme, program music ,struggling with sonata form, mozartiana , string quartets, ballets ) ã Harmony: often follows European practice of harmonic progression with use of the circle of fifths( symphony 5: D---(f#)  A — (c)  E) cyclic symphony ã -repetitions within melodies (folksongs, sequential western style) ã Non western elements ã -use of whole tone scale: 2 nd  symphony finale ã -  ã Pedal points, chromatism for decorative counterpoint ã Romeo->dev. Section uses 2 chords with only one note in common ass Glinka did in Russlan and Lyudmila ã Melody: Sometimes he used Western-style melodies, sometimes srcinal melodies written in the style of Russian folk song; sometimes he used actual folk songs->little russian is based on three Ukranian folk songs, http://youtu.be/ZZl272NeHHk ã -string quartet no 1 in D, second movement theme is based on a folk song Tchaikovsky heard a gardener sing while visiting his sister in the Ukraine two years earlier. The music alternates between the folk theme and a contrasting section of Tchaikovsky’s own inspiration. http://youtu.be/eZFUaQxuymA ã -In the opening section of Romeo and Juliet the main melody and much of the harmony are modal, evoking the traditions of Russian Orthodox church music.-> The Chorale theme, played initially by clarinets and bassoons (bb 110), in a modal F sharp minor http://youtu.be/N3UrvoriS9I

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