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Quality Management in Construction Projects

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Type of quality management in construction filed, from workers, to construction methods.
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  Construction Projects 3.1 Proiect Definition The authors af A Guide to the Project Management Bodqr of Knou,ledge (PMBAK 2(00) define thex'otdprojec/ in term of its distinctive characteristics: 'A proj- ect is a temporary e'ndeavor undertaken to create a unique product or ser- vice. Temporary means that er.ery project has a definite beginning and a deifinite end. Unique mean$ that the product or service is different in some distinguishing w'ay from all similar pnrducts or services. It further states that prcrjects are often critical components of the perform- ing organization business strategl,. Examples of projects include . Developing a new product or serl'ice . Effecting a change in structure, staffing, or st1,le of an organization . Desi€ping a new transportation r, ehicle/aircraft . Developing or acquiring a new or modified information s1'stem . Running a campaign for political office r Implementing a new business procedure or process o Constructing a building or facility The duration of a prc{ect is finite; projects are not ongoing effrxts, and theproject ceases w'hen its declared objectives have been attained. Among ofher shared characteristics, projects are 1. Performed by peaple' 2. Constrained by limite.d resources3. Planrrecl, executed, and controlled P),zdek (1999) definr-d proiect'r as1. A'plan r:r proposal; a scheme 2. An undertaking requirin6; concrete<t effort 121  122Qualifu Management in Constructinn Proj ecbThe plan is defined as 1. A scheme, program or method worked betorehand for the accom- plishment of an ob.iective; a plan of attack 2. A propost--d or terrtative projective or course nf action 3. A systematic arran6;emexrt of important parts (p.48)According to Kerzner (2mD a project can be s:nsidered to be a set of activ- ities and tasks that . Have a specified objective to be completed within certain specifications . Have define'd start and end dates e Have funding limits (if applicable) . Consume human anrl nonhuman resources (i.e., money, people, and c'quipment) . Are multifunctional {i.e., cut across several lines) (p. 2) Based on various definitir-rns, the project can be defined as follor,r,s: 'A ptd- ect is a plan or program perfrrrmed by the people with assigned resources to achieve an objective within a finite duration. 3.2 Construction Proiects Construction has a history of several thousand years The first shelters were built from stone or mud and the materials collected fnrm the forests to pro- vi<le protection against cold, r,vind, rain, and snr:ur These buildings ltrre primarily for resiclential purposes, although somr-'mav have had some com- mercial function.During the New St'eirre Age, people intrr:duced dried bricks, wall coilstruc- tion, metal working, and irrigation. Gradually people cleveloped the skills to construct villages and cities, ancl considerable skills in building wereacquired. This can tre seen from the great civilizations in different parts ofthe *,orld-s:me 40ffi-5000 5rears ago. During the early period of Creeksettlernent lthich was about 2000 BCE, the buildings \4rere made r:f nr:ud using timber frames. Later, t6knples and theaters n'ere built from rnarhle. Some 15i[-2000 years ago RodG became the leading center of lr,orld culture,which extended to constructiorr. Marcus Vitruvius Pollo, the tst century military and civil engineer, penned in Rome the wndd's first mafor treatise on architecture and construction. It  C onstrta:tiott P r o.i ects 123 dealt w'ith building rnaterials, the sgles and design af huilding types, the constructi*n procesE, building physics, astrononrli and building machines. During tlre Middle Ages (476*1492), impnrvements eiccurred in agricul- ture and artisanal productivity and exploration, and as a coflsequencg thebroadening of {ommerce took place and in the late Middle Ages, building construction becanre a major industrl'. Craftsmen were given training and education in order to develop skills and to raise their status. At this timeguilds came up to icientify true craftsnren and set standards for quality. The 15th cenfury brought a renaissance Gr rent'wal in architecture, build-ing, and science. Significant changes occurred durrng the 17th century ancl thereaftev due to the lncreasing transformation of construction and urban habitat.TIre scientific revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries gave birth to the great Industrial Revolution of the 18th centurv. After some dela1,', crrnstruc- ticn follorved these clevelopments in the 19th century. The first half of the 2tlth century wibnessed the construction industry becom i n g an important sector througho ut the lvo rld. ernployi ng rnany rt'ork- ers. During this pericrd skyscrapers, long-span dams, shells, and bridges werre der.'eloped to satisfy nelv rt-'quirements and rnarked the continuing progress of construction techniques. The provision of services such as heating, airconditioning, electrical lighting, w,ater mains, and elevators in buildings became common. The 20th century has seen the transforrnatiolr of the con- struction and building industry into a major er:onornic sector. Durirrg the second half of the 20th century, the construction industry began to indus- trialize, irrtroducing mechanization, prefabrication, and system huilding. The design of building services systems changed considerably in the last 20 years of the 20th century. It became the resp*nsibilit]' of designers to folhrw health, safet-v, and environmental regulations while designing anv building.Building and commercial-traditional A&E ry+pe--construction projects acccrunt for an estimated 25o/ of the annual ccnstruction volume. Building construction is a labor-intensive endeavor. Every construction project tras some elernents that are unique. No two construction or R&D projects are alike. Thr:ugh it is clear that many builcling projects are more routine than research and devek:pment prcrjects, some degree of customization is a char'- acteristic of the projects. Construction projects involve a crclss section o{ many different parti{i- pants. T hese both influence and depend on each other in addition to the 'bther players involved in the construction process. Figure 3.1 illustrates the concept of the kaditional construction project organization.Traditional corrstruction projects invoh,e three main groups. These are 1. Ow'ners-A per$on or an orlianization that initiates and sanctions aprcrject. He/she outlines the neer{s of the facility and is resporrsible for arranging the financial resources for creation of the facility.  124 Quality Managemcnt in Construction Prajects Iines of autlrcritv (de6ned by contract) Lines of commulication FIGURE 3.1 Traditional construction project organization (From -American Society of Cir.il Engineerg Qwliiy itr the Cunstructed Proieet,?tXl0. Reprir*ed with perndssion fromASCE) 2. Designers (A&E)---This group consists of one or rnore architects oren{ineers and consultants. The'y are the o}r,ner's appointd enti- ties accountable for com'erting the owner's conception and need into a specific facility n'ith detailed directions through draw,ings and specilications adhering to the econc,mic objectives. They are responsible for the design of the proiect and in certain cases itssupervision. 3. Contrachrs-A constructiofl firm engaged by the owner to complete the specific facilit-v hy providing the necessarv staff, work force, materials, equipmerrt, tools, and other accessories to the satisfaction of the owner/end user in compliance with the contract documents. The contractor is responsible for implementing the pmject activities and for achievirrg the r:wner's objectives. Construction projects are executed based on a predete.rnrined set of goals and objectivt-, . With traditional construction projerts, the owner heads the tearry designating a proiect manager. The project manager is a personlrnem- ber of the ownels staff or independently hired personffirrn n'ith overall or principal responsibility for the managemL'nt of the pmject as a whole. Oberlender (2in0) states that the u,orking envinrnment and culture of a construction project is unique comparerl to most working conclitittns. A typi cal construction project consists of a grr:up of people, normally from several organizations, that are hire.d ancl assigned to a project to huild the facility. Prr:je-ct Manager . In-horxe staff ' Speciality consultantsConstruction Mana ger rrrSuperintende.nt . Constructioa subco otractors . Suppliers/vendors . Fabricators . Construction trade r rorkers fJerlga Professionalf)esign I'earn Leadr:r . Design disciplines . Desrgn subconsultants { assuiate consu.itants)
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