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Physics Innovation Project The Quantum BIT ~a new approach Efforts By- N.Ramanujam Paras Prakash Nakul Tyagi Naveen Kumar Aim: To study the Quantum bit Theory: What is a Quantum Bit? ã In quantum computing, a qubit or quantum bit (sometimes qbit) is a unit of quantum information—the quantum analogue of the classical binary bit. ã A qubit is a two-state quantu
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  Physics Innovation Project  The Quantum BIT ~a new approach Eforts By-N.RamanujamParas PrakashNaku Tya!iNaveen umar#im$ To study the Quantum bit   Theory$ What is a Quantum Bit? ã In quantum computing, a qubit or quantum bit (sometimes qbit) is a unit of quantum information —the quantum analogue of the classical binary  bit. ã A qubit is a twostate quantummechanical system, such as the  polari!ation of a single  photon here the two states are #ertical polari!ation and hori!ontal  polari!ation. ã  $owe#er, quantum mechanics allows the qubit to be in a superposition of both statesat the same time, a property that is fundamental to quantum computing. %hy Quantum &it' ã A qubit has a few similarities to a classical bit, but is o#erall #ery different. There aretwo possible outcomes for the measurement of a qubit—usually  and , li*e a bit. ã The difference is that whereas the state of a bit is either  or , the state of a qubit canalso be a superposition of both.It is possible to fully encode one bit in one qubit. $owe#er, a qubit can hold e#en more information. ã +or a system of n  components, a complete description of its state in classical physics requires only n  bits, whereas in quantum physics it requires  n - comple numbers. ã &ut it/s right up the alley of a quantum computer. A 0 %a#e system would consider all of the possible solutions at the same time, then collapse down to the optimal set of  player. It/s more complicated than I/m ma*ing out, of course, but it/s a good laymanli*e eample. ã 1o how much faster can quantum computers perform than their digital counterparts' &efore purchasing their own 0 %a#e system a few years bac*, 2oogle put it through its paces and found that when the problem si!e got to the 3 qubit si!e range, the 0 %a#e system outperformed its binary cousins by , times 4 a solid win in anyone/s boo*. $ow Qubit is controlled' 5omputer scientists control the microscopic particles that act as qubits in quantum computers by using control devices .  ã Ion traps  use optical or magnetic fields (or a combination of both) to trap ions. ã Optical traps  use light wa#es to trap and control particles. ã Quantum dots  are made of semiconductor material and are used to contain and manipulate electrons. ã Semiconductor impurities  contain electrons by using 6unwanted6 atoms found in semiconductor material. ã Superconducting circuits  allow electrons to flow with almost no resistance at #ery low temperatures. 5lassical &it #s Quantum &it  The de#ice computes bymanipulating those bits with thehelp of logical gates.The de#ice computes bymanipulating those bits with thehelp of quantum logic gates.A classical computer has a memorymade up of bits, where each bit holdseither a one or a !ero.A qubits can hold a one,a !ero or crucially a superpositoion of these. Ad#antages and 0isad#antages of using qbits A07A8TA2910I1A07A8TA291Increase in computing power.Although qubit can hold many possible#alues but only one classical result can beobtained from e#ery run.Ad#ance in security.:epeated runs may be necessary to obtainthe desired result.Teleportation.It is impossible to copy qubits(nocloningtheorem). ;resent 1tatus ã Quantum physicists from the uni#ersity of Innsbruc* ha#e set another worldrecord They ha#e achie#ed controlled entanglement of < quantum bits and, thusreali!ed the largest quantum register that has e#er been produced. ã :esearchers at delft =ni#ersity of technology ha#e succeeded in carrying outcalculations with two qubits. ã 0ecember >, I&? performs shor@s algorithm. ã I&? announces its 3 qbit quantum computer. Applications ã Quantum computer can be used in cryptography. ã ?odelling and indeing of #ery large databases.
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