Description

Physics Innovation Project
The Quantum BIT
~a new approach
Efforts By-
N.Ramanujam
Paras Prakash
Nakul Tyagi
Naveen Kumar
Aim:
To study the Quantum bit
Theory:
What is a Quantum Bit?
ã In quantum computing, a qubit or quantum bit (sometimes qbit) is a unit of quantum
information—the quantum analogue of the classical binary bit.
ã A qubit is a two-state quantu

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Physics Innovation Project
The Quantum BIT
~a new approach
Eforts By-N.RamanujamParas PrakashNaku Tya!iNaveen umar#im$
To study the Quantum bit
Theory$
What is a Quantum Bit?
ã
In quantum computing, a qubit or quantum bit (sometimes qbit) is a unit of quantum
information —the quantum analogue of the classical binary bit.
ã
A qubit is a twostate quantummechanical system, such as the polari!ation of a
single photon here the two states are #ertical polari!ation and hori!ontal polari!ation.
ã
$owe#er, quantum mechanics allows the qubit to be in a superposition of both statesat the same time, a property that is fundamental to quantum computing.
%hy Quantum &it'
ã
A qubit has a few similarities to a classical bit, but is o#erall #ery different. There aretwo possible outcomes for the measurement of a qubit—usually and , li*e a bit.
ã
The difference is that whereas the state of a bit is either or , the state of a qubit canalso be a superposition of both.It is possible to fully encode one bit in one qubit.
$owe#er, a qubit can hold e#en more information.
ã
+or a system of
n
components, a complete description of its state in classical physics requires only
n
bits, whereas in quantum physics it requires
n
- comple numbers.
ã
&ut it/s right up the alley of a quantum computer. A 0 %a#e system would consider all of the possible solutions at the same time, then collapse down to the optimal set of player. It/s more complicated than I/m ma*ing out, of course, but it/s a good laymanli*e eample.
ã
1o how much faster can quantum computers perform than their digital counterparts' &efore purchasing their own 0 %a#e system a few years bac*, 2oogle put it through its paces and found that when the problem si!e got to the 3 qubit si!e range, the 0 %a#e system outperformed its binary cousins by , times 4 a solid win in anyone/s boo*.
$ow Qubit is controlled'
5omputer scientists control the microscopic particles that act as qubits in quantum computers by using
control devices
.
ã
Ion traps
use optical or magnetic fields (or a combination of both) to trap ions.
ã
Optical traps
use light wa#es to trap and control particles.
ã
Quantum dots
are made of semiconductor material and are used to contain and manipulate electrons.
ã
Semiconductor impurities
contain electrons by using 6unwanted6 atoms found in semiconductor material.
ã
Superconducting circuits
allow electrons to flow with almost no resistance at #ery low temperatures.
5lassical &it #s Quantum &it
The de#ice computes bymanipulating those bits with thehelp of logical gates.The de#ice computes bymanipulating those bits with thehelp of quantum logic gates.A classical computer has a memorymade up of bits, where each bit holdseither a one or a !ero.A qubits can hold a one,a !ero or crucially a superpositoion of these.
Ad#antages and 0isad#antages of using qbits
A07A8TA2910I1A07A8TA291Increase in computing power.Although qubit can hold many possible#alues but only one classical result can beobtained from e#ery run.Ad#ance in security.:epeated runs may be necessary to obtainthe desired result.Teleportation.It is impossible to copy qubits(nocloningtheorem).
;resent 1tatus
ã
Quantum physicists from the uni#ersity of Innsbruc* ha#e set another worldrecord They ha#e achie#ed controlled entanglement of < quantum bits and, thusreali!ed the largest quantum register that has e#er been produced.
ã
:esearchers at delft =ni#ersity of technology ha#e succeeded in carrying outcalculations with two qubits.
ã
0ecember >, I&? performs shor@s algorithm.
ã
I&? announces its 3 qbit quantum computer.
Applications
ã
Quantum computer can be used in cryptography.
ã
?odelling and indeing of #ery large databases.

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