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Quran i c Arabic Patterns Explained

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Traditionally, Arabic and Quranic Arabic is taught with a perspective of what is allowed and not what is not allowed. A comprehensive study and thinking about the Quran reveals some interesting facts about the Arabic language that could strengthen the knowledge and understanding of the special cases mostly dealing around the diacritics.
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  Quranic Arabic Patterns By Gregory Morse Traditionally, Arabic and Quranic Arabic is taught with a perspective of what is allowed and not what is not allowed. A comprehensive study and thinking about the Quran reveals some interesting facts about the Arabic language that could strengthen the knowledge and understanding of the special cases mostly dealing around the diacritics. This is article is intended for an intermediate level Arabic student to benefitfrom clarifying the pattern always used which will also help especially with computerized Arabic. As part of research conducted, some really interesting and notable things were found to help facilitate understanding, learning and familiarity especially for those of us who are not native Arabic speakers.The next article will focus on a complete description of the tajweed recitation! symbols found in the Quran. Table of Arabic symbols (sorted by frequency used in the Quran) ã Fatha (    ) ã Suun (    ) ã !amma (    ) ã asra (    ) ã  Alef (   ) ã Shadda (    ) ã  Alef     #asla (   ) ã  Alef #ith $am%a Abo&e ( أ ) ã Su'erscri't Alef (  󰀠 ) ã Fathatan (    ) ã Maddah Abo&e (  􀀠 ) ã  Alef    Masura ( ى ) ã asratan (    ) ã Teh Marbuta ( ة ) ã !ammatan (    ) ã $am%a ( ء ) ã  Alef #ith $am%a Belo ( إ )  ã  eh #ith $am%a Abo&e ( ئ ) ã  #a #ith $am%a Abo&e ( ؤ ) ã $am%a Abo&e (  󐀠 ) ã Tateel ( ـ ) The red color denotes not allowed or possible while green denotes only allowed or only possible and the arrows are used for combinations with the symbol used to mean combining of any from the last column or an incoming arrow. !iacritic combinations The #hadda is optional and must be followed by a $atha, %asra or &amma or at the end of a word only  with a few exceptions, a tanween $athatan, %asratan and &ammatan! and in the case of a $athah it can  be followed by the #uperscript Alef which can optionally be followed by a 'addah or #ukun. 'addah above when not on a #uperscript Alef or Alef appears only on the special letter combinations at the  beginning of () chapters in the Quran to represent the lengthening of the letter spellings. The *amza  Above is followed by $atha, %asra, &amma or #ukun and at the end of a word also a $athatan.*arakah formula+ #ukun-  'addah Above-  *amza Above- $atha-  %asra-  &amma-  $athatan-  #ukun-!  #uperscript Alef- 'addah Above-  #ukun-!  #hadda- $atha- #uperscript Alef- 'addah Above-!  %asra-  &amma-!  $athatan-  %asratan-  &ammatan-!!  $atha- #uperscript Alef- *ama Above- #ukun-  Beginning of ords  Alef /ith *amza Above    ! is the only special consideration here. The prefixes for verbs and nouns are shown as well as how they combine. Then those which cannot follow are listed as well. The letter is usually dropped altogether from recitation yet it can be a fatha on nouns or a kasra or damma on verbs depending on the diacritic of the (nd letter after it with some notable exceptions.    *nd of ords Teh 'arbuta only appears at the end of the word followed by harakah and is always preceded by a $atha or in a few cases a #uperscript Alef. 0t is typically used to represent feminine nouns. 0t is pronounced as aTeh if continuing or a *eh if stopping. Fathatan and *nd of #ord !iacritics The $athatan is special in that it is followed by an Alef or Alef 'aksura generally except when it is on a Teh 'arbuta or a *amza. &ammatan can take an Alef in 1 occasions which are not pronounced.  $am%a   Although a bit crowded, this chart shows the various harakah combinations allowed before and after the *amza letters. The *amza causes the madd alef, waw or yeh! to be dropped all together except when the waw or yeh *amza are found after an Alef /asla at a starting place.2rinciples+3!4oined prefixes matter, yet suffixes do not and instead only trailing letters are important.(!At the end of word, look behind first and for beginning or middle look forward first.1!*amza letters which resemble the neighboring letters are not used.5!6onnecting and non7connecting letters preceding do matter.8!'inimizing of repetition of isolated letters is typical.9!There are 1 scenarios where ( different *amza could both be written though one is far more common and it still follows the principles but gives a stylistic option for having a connecting or non7connecting way of writing, making connecting or non7connecting the weakest of the principles.:!0n several cases word roots matter as well as whether the word is a verb or not or in a certain conjugated form.*amza at #tart of the /ord stripped of all joined prefixes, though including the prefixes themselves as in the *amza of interrogation, including starting /asl7*amza words!3!0f followed by a $atha and an Alef with *amza Above which is followed by a $atha then write a big*amza.(!0f followed by a $atha and an Alef with *amza Above which is part of the verb root and followed  by a &amma or an Alef with *amza ;elow which is followed by %asra then write an Alef with *amza Above.1!0f followed by a $atha and an Alef with *amza Above which is part of the verb conjugation 3 st  person singular! and followed by a &amma then write a /aw with *amza Above.5!0f prefixed by an Alef with *amza Above followed by a $atha and followed by a %asra and a <oon = out of 3) times! or followed by a Thal and $atha and Alef 3 out of 3( times! then optionally  write a >eh /ith *amza Above.
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