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   Polymers Synthesis and Property AnalysisChemistry ProjectAtul Singh AroraClass: Roll No.: Teacher's Signature XII-D  CONTENTSAcknowledgements Aim of the Project General Overview Brief Theory, Synthesis and Analysis of 1. Bakelite 2. Polystyrene 3. Epoxy Resin Result References * 3 7 11 15 16 iii 1 1CAUTION: Some experiments require hazardous and/or potentially hazardous chemicals. * This refers to the level of caution required for each individual experiment.  AcknowledgmentsI am very greatful to my chemistry teacher, Ms. Sadhana Bhargava, who has been a constant source of inspiration and guidance. She supported me with all my ideas and helped me to the maximum extend possible. She also gave me enough extra time to find all the required information to turn my ideas into a single project. Even though what I initially wanted to make (conductive Polymers) wasn't possible to do with our existing lab apparatus, yet she encouraged me to search for something similar, yet interesting enough for me. This project would never have existed, if it wasn't for her passion to teach. I would also like to thank our lab assistant, Mr. Babu Lal for all the timely help he provided. Apart from this, I would like to thank all those people who've published their useful work on the internet, without which, I perhaps wouldn't even have enough information to make even a single polymer.  Polymers Synthesis and Property AnalysisAim of the ProjectThe aim of this project is to find out the optimum conditions for synthesis of the following polymers, 1. Bakelite* 2. Polystyrene** 3. Epoxy Resin** and to study their physical properties like flexibility, strength, bounciness, color etc. [* Synthesized using chemicals available in the school laboratory] [** Synthesized using Industrial Reagents]General OverviewA polymer is a large molecule (macromolecule) composed of repeating structural units typically connected by covalent chemical bonds. While polymer in popular usage suggests plastic, the term actually refers to a large class of natural and synthetic materials with a variety of properties. Due to the extraordinary range of properties accessible in polymeric materials, they have come to play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life - from plastics and elastomers on the one hand to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are essential for life on the other. A simple example is polyethylene, whose repeating unit is based on ethylene (IUPAC name ethene) monomer (Image 2.1). Most commonly, as in this example, the continuously linked backbone of a polymer consists mainly of carbon atoms. However, other structures do exist; for example, elements such as silicon form familiar materials such as silicones, examples being silly putty and waterproof plumbing sealant. The backbone of DNA is in fact based on repeating units of polysaccharides (e.g. cellulose) which are joined together by glycosidic bonds via oxygen atoms.Image 2.1Page 1
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