Documents

R-intro.pdf

Description
An Introduction to R Notes on R: A Programming Environment for Data Analysis and Graphics Version 3.4.3 (2017-11-30) W. N. Venables, D. M. Smith and the R Core Team This manual is for R, version 3.4.3 (2017-11-30). Copyright c 1990 W. N. Venables Copyright c 1992 W. N. Venables & D. M. Smith Copyright c 1997 R. Gentleman & R. Ihaka Copyright c 1997, 1998 M. Maechler Copyright c 1999–2016 R Core Team Permission is g
Categories
Published
of 105
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  An Introduction to R Notes on R: A Programming Environment for Data Analysis and GraphicsVersion 3.4.3 (2017-11-30) W. N. Venables, D. M. Smithand the R Core Team  This manual is for R, version 3.4.3 (2017-11-30).Copyright c   1990 W. N. VenablesCopyright c   1992 W. N. Venables & D. M. SmithCopyright c   1997 R. Gentleman & R. IhakaCopyright c   1997, 1998 M. MaechlerCopyright c   1999–2016 R Core TeamPermission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual providedthe copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual underthe conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived workis distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into an-other language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that thispermission notice may be stated in a translation approved by the R Core Team.  i Table of Contents Preface .............................................................. 11 Introduction and preliminaries ................................ 2 1.1 The R environment  ................................................................  21.2 Related software and documentation  ...............................................  21.3 R and statistics ....................................................................  21.4 R and the window system ..........................................................  31.5 Using R interactively ...............................................................  31.6 An introductory session ............................................................  41.7 Getting help with functions and features  ...........................................  41.8 R commands, case sensitivity, etc. ..................................................  41.9 Recall and correction of previous commands ........................................  51.10 Executing commands from or diverting output to a file ............................  51.11 Data permanency and removing objects ...........................................  5 2 Simple manipulations; numbers and vectors .................  7 2.1 Vectors and assignment  ............................................................  72.2 Vector arithmetic  ..................................................................  72.3 Generating regular sequences .......................................................  82.4 Logical vectors .....................................................................  92.5 Missing values  .....................................................................  92.6 Character vectors .................................................................  102.7 Index vectors; selecting and modifying subsets of a data set ........................  102.8 Other types of objects  ............................................................  11 3 Objects, their modes and attributes ......................... 13 3.1 Intrinsic attributes: mode and length ..............................................  133.2 Changing the length of an object ..................................................  143.3 Getting and setting attributes .....................................................  143.4 The class of an object .............................................................  14 4 Ordered and unordered factors ..............................  16 4.1 A specific example ................................................................  164.2 The function  tapply()  and ragged arrays .........................................  164.3 Ordered factors ...................................................................  17 5 Arrays and matrices ..........................................  18 5.1 Arrays ............................................................................  185.2 Array indexing. Subsections of an array ...........................................  185.3 Index matrices ....................................................................  195.4 The  array()  function .............................................................  205.4.1 Mixed vector and array arithmetic. The recycling rule ........................  205.5 The outer product of two arrays  ..................................................  215.6 Generalized transpose of an array .................................................  215.7 Matrix facilities ...................................................................  225.7.1 Matrix multiplication  ........................................................  22  ii5.7.2 Linear equations and inversion  ...............................................  225.7.3 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors .................................................  235.7.4 Singular value decomposition and determinants ...............................  235.7.5 Least squares fitting and the QR decomposition  ..............................  235.8 Forming partitioned matrices,  cbind()  and  rbind()  ..............................  245.9 The concatenation function,  c() , with arrays ......................................  245.10 Frequency tables from factors ....................................................  25 6 Lists and data frames ......................................... 26 6.1 Lists ..............................................................................  266.2 Constructing and modifying lists ..................................................  276.2.1 Concatenating lists ...........................................................  276.3 Data frames  ......................................................................  276.3.1 Making data frames ..........................................................  276.3.2  attach()  and  detach()  .....................................................  286.3.3 Working with data frames ....................................................  286.3.4 Attaching arbitrary lists  .....................................................  286.3.5 Managing the search path ....................................................  29 7 Reading data from files ....................................... 30 7.1 The  read.table()  function .......................................................  307.2 The  scan()  function ..............................................................  317.3 Accessing builtin datasets .........................................................  317.3.1 Loading data from other R packages ..........................................  317.4 Editing data ......................................................................  32 8 Probability distributions .....................................  33 8.1 R as a set of statistical tables  .....................................................  338.2 Examining the distribution of a set of data ........................................  348.3 One- and two-sample tests  ........................................................  36 9 Grouping, loops and conditional execution .................  40 9.1 Grouped expressions ..............................................................  409.2 Control statements  ...............................................................  409.2.1 Conditional execution:  if  statements .........................................  409.2.2 Repetitive execution:  for  loops,  repeat  and  while ...........................  40 10 Writing your own functions ................................. 42 10.1 Simple examples .................................................................  4210.2 Defining new binary operators  ...................................................  4310.3 Named arguments and defaults  ..................................................  4310.4 The ‘ ... ’ argument ..............................................................  4410.5 Assignments within functions  ....................................................  4410.6 More advanced examples .........................................................  4410.6.1 Efficiency factors in block designs  ...........................................  4410.6.2 Dropping all names in a printed array .......................................  4510.6.3 Recursive numerical integration  .............................................  4510.7 Scope  ...........................................................................  4610.8 Customizing the environment ....................................................  4810.9 Classes, generic functions and object orientation  .................................  48
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks