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Rabindranath Tagore

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  28/9/2014Rabindranath Tagore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore1/36 Rabindranath Tagore Tagore c. 1915, the year he was knighted by GeorgeV. Tagore repudiated his knighthood in protestagainst the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919. [1] Born Rabindranath Thakur 7 May 1861Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, BritishIndia Died 7 August 1941 (aged 80)Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, BritishIndia Occupation Poet, short story writer, songcomposer, novelist, playwright,essayist, painter  Language Bengali, English Nationality British India Ethnicity Bengali Notableworks Gitanjali , Gora , Ghare-Baire ,  JanaGana Mana ,  Rabindra Sangeet  ,  Amar Shonar Bangla  (other works) NotableawardsNobel Prize in Literature 1913 Spouse Mrinalini Devi (m. 1883–1902) Children five children, two of whom died in Rabindranath Tagore From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Rabindranath Tagore β[›]  ( Bengali pronunciation: [rəˈbindrəˈnɑt ˈtɑɡɔr]  ( ) ), also written Rabīndranātha Thākura(  pronounced: [rəˈbindrəˈnɑtə ˈtɑkʊrə]), [2]  (7 May 1861 – 7August 1941), γ[›]  sobriquet Gurudev , δ[›]  was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music inthe late 19th and early 20th centuries. Author of Gitanjali and its profoundly sensitive, f resh and beautifulverse , [3]  he became the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. [4]  In translation his poetry was viewed as spiritual and mercurial; however,his elegant prose and magical poetry remain largelyunknown outside Bengal. [5]  Tagore introduced new proseand verse forms and the use of colloquial language into Bengali literature, thereby freeing it from traditionalmodels based on classical Sanskrit. He was highlyinfluential in introducing the best of Indian culture to theWest and vice versa, and he is generally regarded as theoutstanding creative artist of the modern Indiansubcontinent, being highly commemorated in India andBangladesh, as well as in Sri Lanka, Nepal andPakistan. [6][7][8] A Pirali Brahmin from Calcutta with ancestral gentryroots in Jessore, Tagore wrote poetry as an eight-year-old. [9]  At age sixteen, he released his first substantial poems under the pseudonym  Bhānusiṃha  ( Sun Lion ),which were seized upon by literary authorities as long-lost classics. [6][10]  He graduated to his first short storiesand dramas— and the aegis of his birth name—by 1877.As a humanist, universalist internationalist, and str ident nationalist he denounced the Raj and advocatedindependence from Britain. As an exponent of the BengalRenaissance, he advanced a vast canon that comprised paintings, sketches and doodles, hundreds of texts, andsome two thousand songs; his legacy endures also in theinstitution he founded, Visva-BharatiUniversity. [11][12][13][14][15] Tagore modernised Bengali art by spurning rigidclassical forms and resisting linguistic strictures. Hisnovels, stories, songs, dance-dramas, and essays spoke totopics political and personal. Gitanjali  ( Song Offerings ),  28/9/2014Rabindranath Tagore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore2/36 childhood Relatives Tagore family Signature Gora  (  Fair-Faced  ) and Ghare-Baire  ( The Home and theWorld  ) are his best-known works, and his verse, shortstories, and novels were acclaimed—or panned—for their lyricism, colloquialism, naturalism, and unnaturalcontemplation. His compositions were chosen by twonations as national anthems: India's  Jana Gana Mana  andBangladesh's  Amar Shonar Bangla . The srcinal song of Sri Lanka’s National Anthem was also written and tuned by Tagore. [16] Contents 1 Early life: 1861–18782 Shelaidaha: 1878–19013 Santiniketan: 1901–19324 Twilight years: 1932–19415 Travels6 Works6.1 Music6.2 Paintings6.3 Theatre6.4 Novels6.5 Stories6.6 Poetry7 Politics7.1 Repudiation of knighthood8 Santiniketan and Visva-Bharati8.1 Theft of Nobel Prize9 Impact10 List of works10.1 Original10.2 Translated11 Adaptations of novels and short stories in cinema11.1 Hindi11.2 Bengali12 See also13 Notes14 Citations  28/9/2014Rabindranath Tagore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore3/36 15 References15.1 Primary15.2 Secondary15.3 Texts16 Further reading17 External links Early life: 1861–1878 The youngest of thirteen surviving children, Tagore was born in the Jorasanko mansion in Calcutta, India to parents Debendranath Tagore (1817–1905) and Sarada Devi (1830–1875). ε[›][17]  The Tagore family cameinto prominence during the Bengal Renaissance that started during the age of Hussein Shah (1493–1519).The srcinal name of the Tagore family was Banerjee. Being Brahmins, their ancestors were referred to as'Thakurmashai' or 'Holy Sir'. During the British rule, this name stuck and they began to be recognised asThakur and eventually the family name got anglicised to Tagore.Tagore family patriarchs were the Brahmofounders of the Adi Dharm faith. The loyalist Prince Dwarkanath Tagore, who employed European estatemanagers and visited with Victoria and other royalty, was his paternal grandfather. [18]  Debendranath hadformulated the Brahmoist philosophies espoused by his friend Ram Mohan Roy, and became focal inBrahmo society after Roy's death. [19][20] Rabi was raised mostly by servants; his mother had died in his early childhoodand his father travelled widely. [22]  His home hosted the publication of literarymagazines; theatre and recitals of both Bengali and Western classical musicfeatured there regularly, as the Jorasanko Tagores were the center of a large andart-loving social group. Tagore's oldest brother Dwijendranath was a respected philosopher and poet. Another brother, Satyendranath, was the first Indianappointed to the elite and formerly all-European Indian Civil Service. Yetanother brother, Jyotirindranath, was a musician, composer, and playwright. [23] His sister Swarnakumari became a novelist. Jyotirindranath's wife Kadambari,slightly older than Tagore, was a dear friend and powerful influence. Her abruptsuicide in 1884, soon after he married, left him for years profoundly distraught.Tagore largely avoided classroom schooling and preferred to roam the manor or nearby Bolpur and Panihati, idylls which the family visited. [24][25]  His brother Hemendranath tutored and physically conditioned him—by having him swim theGanges or trek through hills, by gymnastics, and by practising judo andwrestling. He learned drawing, anatomy, geography and history, literature,mathematics, Sanskrit, and English—his least favourite subject. [26]  Tagoreloathed formal education—his scholarly travails at the local Presidency Collegespanned a single day. Years later he held that proper teaching does not explainthings; proper teaching stokes curiosity: [27] The last twodays a stormhas beenraging, similar to thedescription inmy song —   Jhauro jhauro borishebaridhara  [...amidst it] ahapless,homeless mandrenched fromtop to toestanding on theroof of hissteamer [...]the last twodays I have been singingthis song over and over [...]as a result the pelting soundof the intenserain, the wail “  28/9/2014Rabindranath Tagore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore4/36  — Letter to IndiraDevi. [21] Tagore and his wifeMrinalini Devi, 1883. “ [It] knock[s] at the doors of the mind. If any boy is asked togive an account of what is awakened in him by suchknocking, he will probably say something silly. For whathappens within is much bigger than what comes out inwords. Those who pin their faith on university examinationsas the test of education take no account of this. [27] ” After he underwent an upanayan  initiation at age eleven, he and his father left Calcutta in February 1873for a months-long tour of the Raj. They visited his father's Santiniketan estate and rested in Amritsar enroute to the Himalayan Dhauladhars, their destination being the remote hill station at Dalhousie. Along theway, Tagore read biographies; his father tutored him in history, astronomy, and Sanskrit declensions. Heread biographies of Benjamin Franklin among other figures; they discussed Edward Gibbon's The Historyof the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ; and they examined the poetry of Kālidāsa. [28]  In mid-Aprilthey reached the station, and at 2,300 metres (7,546 ft) they settled into a house that sat atop Bakrota Hill.Tagore was taken aback by the region's deep green gorges, alpine forests, and mossy streams andwaterfalls. [29]  They stayed there for several months and adopted a regime of study and privation thatincluded daily twilight baths taken in icy water. [30][31] He returned to Jorosanko and completed a set of major works by 1877, one of them a long poem in theMaithili style of Vidyapati; they were published pseudonymously. Regional experts accepted them as thelost works of Bhānusimha, a newly discovered ζ[›]  17th-century Vaishnava poet. [32]  He debuted the short-story genre in Bengali with Bhikharini ( The Beggar Woman ), [33][34]  and his Sandhya Sangit   (1882)includes the famous poem Nirjharer Swapnabhanga ( The Rousing of the Waterfall ). Servants subjectedhim to an almost ludicrous regimentation in a phase he dryly reviled as the servocracy . [35]  His head waswater-dunked—to quiet him. [36]  He irked his servants by refusing food; he was confined to chalk circles in parody of Sita's forest trial in the  Ramayana ; and he was regaled with the heroic criminal exploits of Bengal's outlaw- dacoits . [37]  Because the Jorasanko manor was in an area of north Calcutta rife with povertyand prostitution, [38]  he was forbidden to leave it for any purpose other than travelling to school. He thus became preoccupied with the world outside and with nature. Of his 1873 visit to Santiniketan, he wrote:What I could not see did not take me long to get over—what I did see was quite enough. of the wind,the sound of the heavingGorai [R]iver,have assumeda fresh life andfound a newlanguage and Ihave felt like amajor actor inthis newmusical dramaunfolding before me.  ”

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Jul 23, 2017
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