RANADE, GANDHI AND JINNAH ____________________________________________________________________ ___________________ Address delivered on the 101st Birthday Celebration of MAHADEO GOVIND RANADE held on the 18th January 1943 in the Gokhale Memorial Hall, Poona
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  RANADE, GANDHI AND JINNAH  ____________________________________________________________________  ___________________   Address delivered on the 101st Birthday Celebrationof MAHADEO GOVIND RANADE held on the 1th !an ary 1#$%inthe Go&hale Me'orial Hall( )oona *irst ) blished+ 1#$% Re,rinted fro' the first edition of 1#$% -------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------   PREFACE The Deccan Sabha of Poona invited me to deliver an address on the 101st birthday of the late Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade which  it ,ro,osed   to celebrate and which fellon the 18th January 1!0 # was not very willin$ to acce%t the invitation &or # 'new thatmy views on social and %olitical %roblems( a discussion of vvhich could not be avoidedin a discourse on Ranade( would not very %leasin$ to the audience and even %erha%sto the members of the Deccan Sabha # n T he end # acce%ted their invitation )t the timewhen # delivered the address # had no intention of %ublishin$ it )ddresses delivered onanniversaries of $reat men are $enerally occasional %ieces They do not have much%ermanent value # did not thin' that my address was an e*ce%tion to this +ut # havesome troublesome friends who have been 'een on seein$ the whole of it in %rint andhave been insistin$ u%on it # am indifferent to the idea # am ,uite content with the%ublicity it has receiver and # have no desire to see' more )t the same time if there are%eo%le who thin' that it is worthy of bein$ rescued from fallin$ into oblivion # do not seeany reason for disa%%ointin$ them The address as %rinted differs from the address as delivered in two res%ects Section- of the address was omitted from the address as delivered to %revent the %erformance$oin$ beyond reasonable time .ven without it( it too' one hour and a half so deliver theaddress This is one difference The other difference lies in the omission of a lar$e%ortion of Section /### which was devoted to a com%arison of Ranade with Phule &or the omission( there are two reasons #n the first %lace( the com%arison was notsufficiently full and detailed to do ustice to the two men in the second %lace( when thedifficulties of findin$ enou$h %a%er com%elled me to sacrifice some %ortion of theaddress this a%%eared to be best offerin$ The %ublication of the address is ta'in$ %lace under %eculiar circumstances 2rdinarilyreviews follow %ublication #n this case the situation is reversed 3hat is worse is that  the reviews have condemned the address in scathin$ terms This is a matter %rimarilyfor the %ublishers to worry about # am ha%%y that the %ublisher 'nows the ris' and heta'es it 4othin$ more need be said about it e*ce%t that it su%%orts the view ta'en by myfriends that the address contains matter which is of more than e%hemeral value )s for myself # am not in the least %erturbed by the condemnation of this address by the Press 3hat is the $round for its condemnation 5 )nd who has come forward to condemn it 5# am condemned because # critici6ed Mr Gandhi and Mr Jinnah for the mess theyhave made of #ndian %olitics( and that in doin$ so # am alle$ed to have shown towardsthem hatred and disres%ect #n re%ly to this char$e what # have to say is that # havebeen a critic and # must continue to be such #t may be # am ma'in$ mista'es but # havealways felt that it is better to ma'e mista'es than to acce%t $uidance and direction fromothers or to sit silent and allow thin$s to deteriorate Those who have accused me of havin$ been actuated by feelin$s of hatred for$et two thin$s #n the first %lace thisalle$ed hatred is not born of anythin$ that can be called %ersonal #f # am a$ainst them itis because # want a settlement # want a settlement of some sort and # am not %re%aredto wait for an ideal settlement 4or can # tolerate anyone on whose will and consentsettlement de%ends to stand on di$nity and %lay the Grand Mo$hul #n the second %lace(no one can ho%e to ma'e any effective mar' u%on his time and brin$ the aid that isworth brin$in$ to $reat %rinci%les and stru$$lin$ causes if he is not stron$ in his loveand his hatred # hate inustice( tyranny( %om%ousness and humbu$( and my hatredembraces all those who are $uilty of them # want to tell my critics that # re$ard myfeelin$s of hatred as a real force They are only the refle* of the love # bear for thecauses # believe in and # am in no wise ashamed of it &or these reasons # tender noa%olo$y for my criticism of Mr Gandhi and Mr Jinnah( the two men who have brou$ht#ndia7s %olitical %ro$ress to a standstill The condemnation is by the on$ress Press # 'now the on$ress Press well # attachno value to its criticism #t has never refuted my ar$uments #t 'nows only to criticise(rebu'e and revile me for everythin$ # do and to misre%ort( misre%resent and %erverteverythin$ # say 4othin$( that # do( %leases the on$ress Press This animosity of theon$ress Press towards me can to my mind not unfairly( be e*%lained as a refle* of thehatred of the 9indus for the :ntouchables That their animosity has become %ersonal isclear from the fact that the on$ress Press feels offended for my havin$ criticised Mr Jinnah who has been the butt and the tar$et of the on$ress for the last several years 9owever stron$ and however filthy be the abuses which the on$ress Press choosesto shower on me # must do my duty # am no worshi%%er of idols # believe in brea'in$them # insist that if # hate Mr Gandhi and Mr Jinnah;1 disli'e them( # do not hate them;it is because # love #ndia more That is the true faith of a nationalist # have ho%es thatmy countrymen( will some day learn that the country is $reater than the men( that theworshi% of Mr Gandhi or Mr Jinnah and service to #ndia are two very different thin$sand may even be contradictory of each other   << Prithvira Road( 4ew Delhi 1=th March 1!> B. R. AMBEDKAR RANADE, GANDHI AND JINNAHI # must tell you that # am not very ha%%y over this invitation My fear is that # may not beable to do ustice to the occasion 3hen a year a$o the entenary of Ranade7s +irthdaywas celebrated in +ombay the Rt 9on7ble Srinivas Shastri was chosen to s%ea' &or very many reasons he was well ,ualified for %erformin$ the duty 9e can claimed to be acontem%orary of Ranade for a %art of his life 9e had seen him at close ran$e and wasan eye witness of the wor' to which Ranade devoted his life 9e had o%%ortunity lo ud$e him and com%are him with his co?wor'ers 9e could therefore( e*%ound his viewsabout Ranade with a sense of confidence and with intimacy born out of %ersonal touch 9e could cite an anecdote and illuminate the fi$ure of Ranade before his audience 4one of these ,ualifications are available to me My connection with Ranade is of thethinnest # had not even seen him There are only two incidents about Ranade which #can recall &irst relates to his death # was a student in the first standard in the Satara9i$h School 2n the 1@th January 101 the 9i$h School was closed and we boys had aholiday 3e as'ed why it was dosed and we were told that because Ranade was dead #was then about  years old # 'new nothin$ about Ranade( who he was( what he haddone  li'e other boys # was ha%%y over the holiday and did not care to 'now who died The second incident which reminds me of Ranade is dated much later than the first 2nce # was e*aminin$ some bundles of old %a%ers belon$in$ to my father when # foundin them a %a%er which %ur%orted to be a %etition sent by the ommissioned and non?ommissioned officers of the Mahar ommunity to the Government of #ndia a$ainst theorders issued in 18< bannin$ the recruitment of the Mahars in the )rmy 2n in,uiry #was told that this was a co%y of a %etition which was drafted by Ranade to hel% thea$$rieved Mahars to obtain redress +eyond these two incidents # have nothin$ to recallof Ranade My 'nowled$e about him is wholly im%ersonal #t is derived from what # haveread about his wor' and what others have said about him Aou must not e*%ect me tosay anythin$ of a %ersonal character which will either interest you or instruct you #%ro%ose to say what # thin' of him as a %ublic?man in his days and his %lace in #ndian%olitics today II  )s you are well aware( there are friends of Ranade who do not hesitate to describehim as a $reat man and there are others who with e,ual insistence deny him that %lace 3here does the truth lie5 +ut this ,uestion must( # thin'( wait u%on another( namely( is  history the bio$ra%hy of $reat men 5 The ,uestion is both relevant as well as im%ortant &or( if $reat men were not the ma'ers of history( there is no reason why we should ta'emore notice of them than we do of cinema stars /iews differ There are those whoassert that however $reat a man may be( he is a creature of Time;Time called himforth( Time did everythin$( he did nothin$ Those who hold this /iew( in my ud$ement(wron$ly inter%ret history There have been three different views on the causes of historical chan$es 3e have had the )u$ustinian theory of history( accordin$ to whichhistory is only an unfoldin$ of a divine %lan in which man'ind is to continue throu$h war and sufferin$ until that divine %lan is com%leted at the day of ud$ement There is theview of +uc'le who held that history was made by Geo$ra%hy and Physics Barl Mar*%ro%ounded a third view )ccordin$ to him history was the result of economic forces 4one of these three would admit that history is the bio$ra%hy of $reat men #ndeed theydeny man any %lace in the lea'in$ of history 4o one e*ce%t theolo$ians acce%ts the )u$ustinian theory of history )s to +uc'le and Mar*( while there is truth in what theysay( their views do not re%resent the whole truth They are ,uite wron$ in holdin$ thatim%ersonal forces are everythin$ and that man is no factor in the ma'in$ of history Thatim%ersonal forces are a determinin$ factor cannot be denied +ut that the effect of #im%ersonal forces de%ends on man must also be admitted &lint may not e*isteverywhere +ut where it does e*ist( it needs man to stri'e flint a$ainst flint to ma'e fire Seeds may not be found everywhere +ut where they do e*ist( it needs man to $round itto %owder and ma'e it a delectable and nutritious %aste and thereby lay the foundationof a$riculture There are many areas devoid of metals +ut where they do e*ist( it needsa man to ma'e instruments and machines which are the basis of civili6ation and culture Ta'e the case of social forces /arious tra$ic situations arise 2ne such situation is of the ty%e described by Thayer in his bio$ra%hy of Theodore Roosevelt when he says C There comes a time in every sect( %arty or institution when it sto%s $rowin$( itsarteries harden( its youn$ men see no visions( its old men dream no dreams  it liveson the %ast and des%erately tries to %er%etuate the %ast #n %olitics when this %rocessof %etrifaction is reached we call it +ourbonism and the sure si$n of the +ourbon isthat( bein$ unconscious that he is the victim of sclerosis( he sees no reason for see'in$ a cure :nable to adust himself to chan$ed and new conditions he falls bac'into the %ast as an old man dro%s into his worn?out arm?chair The other 'ind of situation is not one of decay but of destruction The %ossibilities of itare always %resent whenever there is a crisis The old ways( old habits and old thou$htsfail to lift society and lead it on :nless new ones are found there is no %ossibility of survival 4o society has a smooth sailin$ There are %eriods of decay and %ossibilities of destruction throu$h which every society has to %ass Some survive( some aredestroyed( and some under$o sta$nation and decay 3hy does this ha%%en 5 3hat isthe reason that some survive 5 arlyle has furnished an answer 9e %uts in hischaracteristic wayC
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