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Raspailia (Raspaxilla) bouryesnaultae, a new name for Brazilian Raspaxilla elegans Boury-Esnault, 1973 (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Raspailiidae) with a redescription and a new record

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Raspailia (Raspaxilla) bouryesnaultae, a new name for Brazilian Raspaxilla elegans Boury-Esnault, 1973 (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Raspailiidae) with a redescription and a new record
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  1129  Accepted by G. Wörheide: 2 Jan. 2006; published: 16 Feb. 2006    37 ZOOTAXA ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)ISSN   1175-5334   (online edition) Copyright © 2006 Magnolia Press  Zootaxa  1129: 37 – 45 (2006) www.mapress.com  /  zootaxa  /   Raspailia (Raspaxilla) bouryesnaultae , a new name for Brazilian  Raspaxilla elegans  Boury-Esnault, 1973 (Demospongiae, Poecilo-sclerida, Raspailiidae) with a redescription and a new record CLÉA LERNER*, JOÃO L. CARRARO* & ROB VAN SOEST** *) Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do RS. 90690-000. Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul,  Brazil. E-mail: cblerner@fzb.rs.gov.br; joaocarraro_rs@yahoo.com.br **) Zoological Museum of the University of Amsterdam, P.O.Box 94766 1090 GT Amsterdam, the Netherlands.  E-mail: soest@science.uva.nl Abstract The combination  Raspailia (Raspaxilla) elegans sensu  Boury-Esnault, 1973 is precoccupied by  Raspailia elegans  Lendenfeld,1887 (Porifera, Poecilosclerida, Raspailiidae). A new name for thisBrazilian shallow-water species is proposed,  Raspailia (Raspaxilla) bouryesnaultae  n.n., and thespecies is redescribed based on a skeleton slide from the holotype and additional material freshlycollected from the coast of Santa Catarina state. The distribution is now expanded to encompass thearea from 22º to 27°S, in southeastern Brazil. Key words: Taxonomy, Porifera,  Raspailia , Sowthwestern Atlantic, Brazil Introduction The coast of the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina represents the southern limit of thedistribution of many shallow-water sponges, because it is the southernmost Brazilianregion with rocky substrate and protected areas for attachment of this fauna. Further south,the coasts are sandy and the waters are very troubled. Porifera studies in this area arescarce. Until 1994, only six species were recorded from Santa Catarina coast: Geodiaglariosa , Stelletta beae , Tethya diploderma ,  Dragmacidon reticulata , Tedania ignis  and  Aplysina caissara  (Volkmer-Ribeiro & Mothes-de-Moraes, 1975; Mothes-de-Moraes,1985; 1987). In the last ten years the number of species was increased with twenty-fourrecords:  Aaptos aff. aaptos, Axinella corrugata, Callyspongia (Toxochalina) pseudotoxa,Chalinula zeae, Ciocalypta alba, Clathrina ascandroides, Guitarra sepia, Haliclonacatarinenses, Haliclona lilacea, Haliclona mammillaris, Haliclona tubifera,  LERNER ET AL. 38   © 2006  Magnolia Press 1129 ZOOTAXA  Hymeniacidon heliophila, Monanchora arbuscula, Mycale (Carmia) magnirhaphidifera, Mycale (Carmia) microsigmatosa, Mycale (Naviculina) arcuiris, Myxilla mucronata,Petromica citrina, Polymastia cf. agglutinans, Polymastia janeirensis, Protosuberitesaurantiaca, Scopalina ruetzleri, Sycon vigilans, Terpios manglaris  (Mothes & Lerner,1994; Lerner, 1996; Lerner & Hajdu, 2002; Carvalho et al. , 2003; Lerner et al. , 2005). Toincrease the knowledge about the Southwestern Atlantic marine sponge fauna, weorganised an expedition to Coral Island, Santa Catarina state coast (27°56’00’’S/ 48°32’30’’W) and detected the presence of  Raspailia (Raspaxilla) elegans  (Boury-Esnault, 1973).Raspailiidae Hentschel, 1923 is defined by a special category of smaller ectosomalstyles, oxeas or anisoxeas forming discrete bouquets around protruding larger styles oroxeas (Hooper, 2002). Five species of  Raspailia  are recorded for the Central WestAtlantic:  Raspailia acanthifera  (George & Wilson, 1919),  Raspailia hispida sensu Sanches,  Raspailia cf. tenuis  (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) sensu  Van Soest & Stentoft (1988),  Raspailia (Raspaxilla) phakellia  (Topsent,1913), and  Raspailia (Raspaxilla) elegans (Boury-Esnault, 1973 as  Raspaxilla ). The genus  Raspaxilla  Topsent, 1913 was assigned to the synonymy of  Raspailia , witha status of subgenus, by the most recent update of the classifcation of the Raspailiidae(Hooper, 2002). Because the combination  Raspailia elegans sensu  Boury-Esnault,1973 isnow preoccupied by  R. elegans  (Lendenfeld, 1887, as  Antherochalina ) it will need a newname, provided below. We also take this opportunity to extend the the partially incompletedescription of this species made by Boury-Esnault (1973) based on our material and on aslide made from the holotype deposited in Zoological Museum of Amsterdam. The presentrecord expands the southern limit of the distribution of the species. Material and methods The studied material was collected manually by scuba diving at Coral Island (fig.1),Southwestern Atlantic. The water temperature at the moment of sampling was 16°C.Preparations of dissociated spicules and of thick sections for study under the lightmicroscope were made according to Mothes-de-Moraes (1985); for SEM studies it wasdone according to Mothes & Silva (2002). Studied material is deposited in the PoriferaCollection of the Museu de Ciências Naturais, and was compared with a slide from theholotype deposited in the ZMA.Abbreviations used. D.NBE: Determinateur: Nicole Boury-Esnault; FZB: FundaçãoZoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; MCNPOR: Museu de CiênciasNaturais, Porifera Collection, Porto Alegre, Brazil; MNHN: Muséum National d’HistoireNaturelle, Paris, France; SEM: Scanning Electronic Microscope; ZMA: ZoologicalMuseum Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.   © 2006 Magnolia Press 39  RASPAILIA 1129 ZOOTAXA ResultsClass Demospongiae Sollas, 1885Order Poecilosclerida Topsent, 1928Suborder Microcionina Hajdu, Van Soest & Hooper, 1994Family Raspailiidae Hentschel, 1923Subfamily Raspailiinae Hentschel, 1923  Raspailia  Nardo, 1833 Definition. Raspailiidae with a more-or-less compressed axial skeleton and a radial,plumose or simply reticulate extra-axial skeleton, with choanossomal spicules consistingof 2–3 or more different size classes (styles and/or oxeas), and echinating acanthostylesmicrocionid-like or secondarily modified (Hooper, 2002). Subgenus  Raspaxilla Topsent, 1913 Definition.  Raspailia  with echinating acanthose rhabdostyles geometrically very differentfrom the usually longer choanosomal styles (the latter without any basal rhabd); extra-axial styles forming a radial skeleton perpendicular to the axis; and well differentiatedaxial and extra-axial skeletons (the former compressed, the latter plumo-reticulate and/orradial) (Hooper, 2002).  Raspailia (Raspaxilla) bouryesnaultae  n.n.  Raspaxilla elegans  Boury-Esnault, 1973: Campagne de la Calypso au large des côtesatlantiques de l’Amérique du Sud (1961–1962). I, 29. Spongiaires.  Rés. sci. Camp.Calypso  10: 278, fig.29; pl.II, 4 (not  Raspailia elegans  Lendenfeld, 1887 as  Anthorochalina , cf. Hooper & Wiedenmayer,1994)Remark. We tried unsuccessfully to contact the present curator of MNHN, Paris, inorder to examine the holotype. The presence of a slide from the holotype (previouslyobtained through the courtesy of Prof. Lévi, now retired) in ZMA allows the comparisonbetween our material and that described by Boury-Esnault (1973).Studied material. Brazil, Santa Catarina state: Coral Island. (27°56’00’’S48°32’30’’W), 12m depth, 08/III/2001, MCNPOR 5058, coll. C. LernerSlide from Holotype of  Raspaxilla elegans sensu  Boury-Esnault,1973. Brazil, Rio deJaneiro: MNHN D.NBE 1032 [ZMA Por. 17585].  LERNER ET AL. 40   © 2006  Magnolia Press 1129 ZOOTAXA FIGURE 1. Map of Coral Island, Santa Catarina State coast, Brazil showing the collecting area. Description of studied material (figs. 2–3). Arborescent growth form with secondarysmaller ramifications arising from larger main branches. The main branches measures 5.5–9.7 cm in length. The structure of the sponge is supported by a small peduncle thatmeasures 2.2 cm diameter. Surface hispid, velvety. Consistency firm and flexible. Brightyellow colour in situ and dark orange in alcohol.Skeleton (figs. 4–5). Axial plumo-reticulated skeleton made by styles. Axial bundlesgo from basal region towards the apex of each ramification of sponge body and protrudeoutwards. Extra-axial skeleton plumo-reticulated and complemented by the presence of bundles of anisoxeas in the ectosome. Acanthose rhabdostyles echinating bundles of stylesand distributed through peripheral skeleton.Spicules (figs. 6–10; tab.I). Megascleres are long, smooth and curved styles in a singlecategory. Auxiliary megascleres are short acanthose rhabdostyles and thin anisoxeas; thelatter restricted to the ectosomal region.   © 2006 Magnolia Press 41  RASPAILIA 1129 ZOOTAXA Distribution. From 22º12’S/40º59’W to 27°56’S/48°32’W in southeastern Brazil. Apresumably third record of this species is from the coast of Sao Paulo State (Hajdu,unverified internet record). FIGURES 2 – 3.    Raspailia (Raspaxilla) bouryesnaultae  n.n. (MCNPOR 5058). 2. Underwaterphotography. Scale bar=2 cm; 3. Photography of preserved material. Scale bar=2 cm.
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