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R&D Project

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1. RESERCH & DEVELOPMENT CENTER FOR BIC. & SEW. MAC. Project by students of Automobile 2. Roll no.’s A.5714 A.5715 A.5676 A.5688 A.5701 A.5711…
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  • 1. RESERCH & DEVELOPMENT CENTER FOR BIC. & SEW. MAC. Project by students of Automobile
  • 2. Roll no.’s A.5714 A.5715 A.5676 A.5688 A.5701 A.5711 A5803
  • 3. About innovation discovery  Its 500 cc 4 stroke air-cooled engine produces maximum output of 6.5 bhp @ 3600 rpm and 1.48 kgm @ 2500 rpm.  It is available with various important features like 4 speed gear box, fuel tank capacity of 14.25 ltr (reserve 1.25 ltr) etc.  Its 1370 mm wheelbase provides better grip on road assuring safest riding in any road condition.  Fatigue of long journey can easily be avoided with the relaxing seat and spacious foot rest.
  • 4. About chaise
  • 5. Showed creativity
  • 6. Parts Universal joint Drive shaft Piston Gudgeon pin Connecting rod Crankshaft Bearings
  • 7. Parts Piston ring Electromagnetic coils Flywheel Clutch Multiple plate friction clutch Fuel pump Fuel injection Cylinder head
  • 8. Parts Automobile self starter Camshaft Rocker arm Transmission (mechanics) Crown Wheel and Pinion Automobile drum brake Air filter
  • 9. Parts  Battery  Oil filter
  • 10. Universal joint  A universal joint, U joint, Cardan joint, Hardy-Spicer joint, or Hooke's joint is a joint in a rigid rod that allows the rod to 'bend' in any direction, and is commonly used in shafts that transmit rotary motion. It consists of a pair of hinges located close together, oriented at 90° to each other, connected by a cross shaft
  • 11. Drive shaft  A drive shaft, driving shaft, propeller shaft, or Cardan shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them.  Drive shafts are carriers of torque: they are subject to torsion and shear stress, equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load. They must therefore be strong enough to bear the stress, whilst avoiding too much additional weight as that would in turn increase their inertia.
  • 12. Drive shaft
  • 13. AdvantagesDisadvantages  Advantages  * Drive system is less likely to become jammed or broken, a common problem with chain-driven bicycles  * The use of a gear system creates a smoother and more consistent pedaling motion  * The rider cannot become dirtied from chain grease or injured by the chain from "Chain bite", which occurs when clothing or even a body part catches between the chain and a sprocket  * Lower maintenance than a chain system when the drive shaft is enclosed in a tube, the common convention  * More consistent performance. Dynamic Bicycles claims that a drive shaft bicycle consistently delivers 94% efficiency, whereas a chain-driven bike can deliver anywhere from 75-97% efficiency based on condition.  * Greater clearance: with the absence of a derailleur or other low-hanging machinery, the bicycle has nearly twice the ground clearance  * For bicycle rental companies, a drive-shaft bicycle is less prone to be stolen, since the shaft is non-standard, and both noticeable and non-maintainable. This type of bicycle is in use in several major cities of Europe, where there have been large municipal funded, public (and automatic) bicycle rental projects.
  • 14. AdvantagesDisadvantages  Disadvantages  * A drive shaft system weighs more than a chain system, usually 1-2 pounds heavier  * At optimum upkeep, a chain delivers greater efficiency  * Many of the advantages claimed by drive shaft's proponents can be achieved on a chain-driven bicycle, such as covering the chain and gears with a metal or plastic cover  * Use of lightweight derailleur gears with a high number of ratios is impossible, although hub gears can be used  * Wheel removal can be complicated in some designs (as it is for some chain-driven bicycles with hub gears).
  • 15. Motorcycle drive shafts
  • 16. Motorcycle drive shafts  Drive shafts have been used on motorcycles almost as long as there have been motorcycles. As an alternative to chain and belt drives, drive shafts offer relatively maintenance-free operation and long life. A disadvantage of shaft drive on a motorcycle is that gearing is needed to turn the power 90° from the shaft to the rear wheel, losing some power in the process. On the other hand, it is easier to protect the shaft linkages and drive gears from dust, sand and mud.  The best known motorcycle manufacturer to use shaft drive for a long time — since 1923 — is BMW. Among contemporary manufacturers, Moto Guzzi is also well-known for its shaft drive motorcycles. The British company, Triumph and all four Japanese brands, Honda, Suzuki, Kawasaki and Yamaha, have produced shaft drive motorcycles.  Motorcycle engines positioned such that the crankshaft is longitudinal and parallel to the frame are often used for shaft driven motorcycles. This requires only one 90° turn in power transmission, rather than two. Moto Guzzi, BMW, Triumph, and Honda use this engine layout.  Motorcycles with shaft drive are subject to shaft effect where the chassis climbs when power is applied. This is counteracted with systems such as BMW's Paralever, Moto Guzzi's CARC and Kawasaki's Tetralever
  • 17. Drive shaft for Research and Development (R&D)  The automotive industry also uses drive shafts at testing plants. At an engine test stand a drive shaft is used to transfer a certain speed / torque from the combustion engine to a dynamometer. A "shaft guard" is used at a shaft connection to protect against contact with the drive shaft and for detection of a shaft failure. At a transmission test stand a drive shaft connects the prime mover with the transmission.
  • 18. Principal of diesel engine  1. Suction stroke - Air and vaporised fuel are drawn in  2. Compression stroke - Fuel vapor and air are compressed and ignited  3. Power stroke - Fuel combusts and piston is pushed downwards  4. Exhaust stroke - Exhaust is driven out
  • 19. A four stroke internal combustion engine,
  • 20. DIESEL ENGINE MOTOR CYCLE  In India, motorcycles built by Royal Enfield could be bought with 325 cc single-cylinder diesel engines due to the fact that diesel was much cheaper than petrol (gasoline) at the time, and of more reliable quality. These engines were noisy and unrefined and not very popular because of lower performance and higher weight penalties and also the unique kick-starting techniques. The engine were originally designed for use in commercial applications such as electric generators and water pumps
  • 21. Enfield Diesel Its 325 cc 4 stroke air-cooled engine produces maximum output of 6.5 bhp @ 3600 rpm and 1.48 kgm @ 2500 rpm. It is available with various important features like 4 speed gear box, fuel tank capacity of 14.25 ltr (reserve 1.25 ltr) etc. Its 1370 mm wheelbase provides better grip on road assuring safest riding in any road condition. Fatigue of long journey can easily be avoided with the relaxing seat and spacious foot rest.
  • 22. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF ENFIELD DIESEL  Engine  Type 4 stroke, air-cooled  Displacement 325cc  Bore x stroke 78x68mm  Max. bhp 6.5bhp@3600rpm  Max. torque 1.48kgm@2500rpm  Fuel Consumption 70kmpl under normal riding conditions at 40 kmph  Vehicle  Electricals 12V ac/dc  Wheel base 1370mm  Fuel tank capacity 14.25 lt (1.25 lt. reserve)  Front tyre 3.25"x19"  Rear tyre 3.25"x19"  Transmission Four-speed gear box
  • 23. How diesel engines work  The diesel internal combustion engine differs from the gasoline powered Otto cycle by using a higher compression of the air to ignite the fuel rather than using a spark plug ("compression ignition" rather than "spark ignition").  In the diesel engine, only air is introduced into the combustion chamber. The air is then compressed with a compression ratio typically between 15 and 22 resulting into a 40 bar (about 600 psi) pressure compared to 14 bar (about 200 psi) in the gasoline engine. This high compression heats the air to 550 °C (about 1000 °F). At about this moment (the exact moment is determined by the fuel injection timing of the fuel system), fuel is injected directly into the compressed air in the combustion chamber. This may be into a (typically toroidal) void in the top of the piston or a 'pre-chamber' depending upon the design of the engine. The fuel injector ensures that the fuel is broken down into small droplets, and that the fuel is distributed as evenly as possible. The more modern the engine, the smaller, more numerous and better distributed are the droplets. The heat of the compressed air vaporises fuel from the surface of the droplets. The vapour is then ignited by the heat from the compressed air in the combustion chamber, the droplets continue to vaporise from their surfaces and burn, getting smaller, until all the fuel in the droplets has been burnt. The start of vaporisation causes a delay period during ignition, and the characteristic diesel knocking sound as the vapour reaches ignition temperature and causes an abrupt increase in pressure above the piston. The rapid expansion of combustion gases then drives the piston downward, supplying power to the crankshaft.[7]  As well as the high level of compression allowing combustion to take place without a separate ignition system, a high compression ratio greatly increases the engine's efficiency. Increasing the compression ratio in a spark-ignition engine where fuel and air are mixed before entry to the cylinder is limited by the need to prevent damaging pre-ignition. Since only air is compressed in a diesel engine, and fuel is not introduced into the cylinder until shortly before top dead center (TDC), premature detonation is not an issue and compression ratios are much higher.  Fuel delivery  A vital component of all diesel engines is a mechanical or electronic governor which regulates the idling speed and maximum speed of the engine by controlling the rate of fuel delivery. Unlike Otto-cycle engines, incoming air is not throttled and a diesel engine without a governor can not have a stable idling speed and can easily overspeed, resulting in its destruction. Mechanically governed fuel injection systems are driven by the engine's gear train. [8] These systems use a combination of springs and weights to control fuel delivery relative to both load and speed. [8] Modern, electronically controlled diesel engines control fuel delivery by use of an electronic control module (ECM) or electronic control unit (ECU). The ECM/ECU receives an engine speed signal, as well as other operating parameters such as intake manifold pressure and fuel temperature, from a sensor and controls the amount of fuel and start of injection timing through actuators to maximize power and efficiency and minimize emissions. Controlling the timing of the start of injection of fuel into the cylinder is a key to minimizing emissions, and maximizing fuel economy (efficiency), of the engine. The timing is measured in degrees of crank angle of the piston before top dead center. For example, if the ECM/ECU initiates fuel injection when the piston is 10 degrees before TDC, the start of injection, or timing, is said to be 10° BTDC. Optimal timing will depend on the engine design as well as its speed and load. Advancing the start of injection (injecting before the piston reaches TDC) results in higher in-cylinder pressure and temperature, and higher efficiency, but also results in elevated engine noise and increased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions due to higher combustion temperatures. Delaying start of injection causes incomplete combustion, reduced fuel efficiency and an increase in exhaust smoke, containing a considerable amount of particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons .
  • 24. How diesel engines work
  • 25. Major advantages  Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal combustion engines.  * They burn less fuel than a gasoline engine performing the same work, due to the engine's high efficiency and diesel fuel's higher energy density than gasoline.[9]  * They have no high-tension electrical ignition system to attend to, resulting in high reliability and easy adaptation to damp environments.  * They can deliver much more of their rated power on a continuous basis than a gasoline engine.  * The life of a diesel engine is generally about twice as long as that of a gasoline engine [10] due to the increased strength of parts used, also because diesel fuel has better lubrication properties than gasoline.  * Diesel fuel is considered safer than gasoline in many applications. Although diesel fuel will burn in open air using a wick, it will not explode and does not release a large amount of flammable vapour. 
  • 26. Major advantages  * For any given partial load the fuel efficiency (kg burned per kWh produced) of a diesel engine remains nearly constant, as opposed to gasoline and turbine engines which use proportionally more fuel with partial power outputs. [11][12][13][14]  * They generate less waste heat (btu) in cooling and exhaust.[9]  * With a diesel, boost pressure is essentially unlimited.  * The carbon monoxide content of the exhaust is minimal, therefore diesel engines are used in underground mines.
  • 27. Emissions  Diesel engines produce very little carbon monoxide as they burn the fuel in excess air even at full load, at which point the quantity of fuel injected per cycle is still about 50% lean of stoichiometric. However, they can produce black soot (or more specifically diesel particulate matter) from their exhaust, which consists of unburned carbon compounds. This is caused by local low temperatures where the fuel is not fully atomized. These local low temperatures occur at the cylinder walls and at the outside of large droplets of fuel. At these areas where it is relatively cold, the mixture is rich (contrary to the overall mixture which is lean). The rich mixture has less air to burn and some of the fuel turns into a carbon deposit. Modern car engines use a diesel particulate filter (DPF) to capture carbon particles and then intermittently burn them using extra fuel injected into the engine.  The full load limit of a diesel engine in normal service is defined by the "black smoke limit". Beyond which point the fuel cannot be completely combusted, as the "black smoke limit" is still considerably lean of stoichiometric. It is possible to obtain more power by exceeding it, but the resultant inefficient combustion means that the extra power comes at the price of reduced combustion efficiency, high fuel consumption and dense clouds of smoke. This is only done in specialized applications (such as tractor pulling competitions) where these disadvantages are of little concern
  • 28. Emissions  Likewise, when starting from cold, the engine's combustion efficiency is reduced because the cold engine block draws heat out of the cylinder in the compression stroke. The result is that fuel is not combusted fully, resulting in blue/white smoke and lower power outputs until the engine has warmed through. This is especially the case with indirect injection engines, which are less thermally efficient. With electronic injection, the timing and length of the injection sequence can be altered to compensate for this. Older engines with mechanical injection can have mechanical and hydraulic governor control to alter the timing, and multi-phase electrically controlled glow plugs, that stay on for a period after start-up to ensure clean combustion—the plugs are automatically switched to a lower power to prevent them burning out.
  • 29. Emissions  Particles of the size normally called PM10 (particles of 10 micrometres or smaller) have been implicated in health problems, especially in cities. Some modern diesel engines feature diesel particulate filters, which catch the black soot and when saturated are automatically regenerated by burning the particles. Other problems associated with the exhaust gases (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides) can be mitigated with further investment and equipment; some diesel cars now have catalytic converters in the exhaust.  All diesel engine exhaust emissions can be significantly reduced by the use of biodiesel fuel. Oxides of nitrogen do increase from a vehicle using biodiesel, but they too can be reduced to levels below that of fossil fuel diesel, by changing fuel injection timing.
  • 30. Power and torque  For commercial uses requiring towing, load carrying and other tractive tasks, diesel engines tend to have better torque characteristics. Diesel engines tend to have their torque peak quite low in their speed range (usually between 1600–2000 rpm for a small-capacity unit, lower for a larger engine used in a truck). This provides smoother control over heavy loads when starting from rest, and, crucially, allows the diesel engine to be given higher loads at low speeds than a gasoline engine, making them much more economical for these applications. This characteristic is not so desirable in private cars, so most modern diesels used in such vehicles use electronic control, variable geometry turbochargers and shorter piston strokes to achieve a wider spread of torque over the engine's speed range, typically peaking at around 2500–3000 rpm.
  • 31. Safety  The diesel engine is a very safe type of engine. Diesel engines are equipped with a mechanical or electronic governor to control minimum and maximum rpm[8], which makes Diesel engine runaway unlikely. The fuel is barely flammable so fire risk is low.
  • 32. SINGLE CYLINDER ENGINES
  • 33. SINGLE CYLINDER ENGINES  A single cylinder engine produces three main vibrations. In describing them we will assume that the cylinder is vertical.  Firstly, in an engine with no balancing counterweights, there would be an enormous vibration produced by the change in momentum of the piston, gudgeon pin, connecting rod and crankshaft once every revolution. Nearly all single-cylinder crankshafts incorporate balancing weights to reduce this.  While these weights can balance the crankshaft completely, they cannot completely balance the motion of the piston, for two reasons. The first reason is that the balancing weights have horizontal motion as well as vertical motion, so balancing the purely vertical motion of the piston by a crankshaft weight adds a horizontal vibration. The second reason is that, considering now the vertical motion only, the smaller piston end of the connecting rod (little end) is closer to the larger crankshaft end (big end) of the connecting rod in mid-stroke than it is at the top or bottom of the stroke, because of the connecting rod's angle. So during the 180° rotation from mid-stroke through top-dead-center and back to mid-stroke the minor contribution to the piston's up/down movement from the connecting rod's change of angle has the same direction as the major contribution to the piston's up/down movement from the up/down movement of the crank pin. By contrast, during the 180° rotation from mid-stroke through bottom-dead-center and back to mid-stroke the minor contribution to the piston's up/down movement from the connecting rod's change of angle has the opposite direction of the major contribution to the piston's up/down movement from the up/down movement of the crank pin. The piston therefore travels faster in the top half of the cylinder than it does in the bottom half, while the motion of the crankshaft weights is sinusoidal. The vertical motion of the piston is therefore not quite the same as that of the b
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