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Real Talk: Reality Television and Discourse Analysis in Action

Real Talk: Reality Television and Discourse Analysis in Action Also by Nuria Lorenzo-Dus SPANISH AT WORK: Analysing Institutional Discourse across the Spanish-Speaking World (editor) TELEVISION DISCOURSE:
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Real Talk: Reality Television and Discourse Analysis in Action Also by Nuria Lorenzo-Dus SPANISH AT WORK: Analysing Institutional Discourse across the Spanish-Speaking World (editor) TELEVISION DISCOURSE: Analysing Language in the Media Also by Pilar Garcés-Conejos Blitvich PRAGMATICS AND CONTEXT (co-editor) Real Talk: Reality Television and Discourse Analysis in Action Edited by Nuria Lorenzo-Dus Swansea University, UK and Pilar Garcés-Conejos Blitvich University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA Selection and editorial matter Nuria Lorenzo-Dus and Pilar Garcés-Conejos Blitvich 2013 Individual chapters Respective authors 2013 Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No portion of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, Saffron House, 6 10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The authors have asserted their rights to be identified as the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act First published 2013 by PALGRAVE MACMILLAN Palgrave Macmillan in the UK is an imprint of Macmillan Publishers Limited, registered in England, company number , of Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS. Palgrave Macmillan in the US is a division of St Martin s Press LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY Palgrave Macmillan is the global academic imprint of the above companies and has companies and representatives throughout the world. Palgrave and Macmillan are registered trademarks in the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe and other countries. ISBN ISBN (ebook) DOI / This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest sources. Logging, pulping and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. Typeset by MPS Limited, Chennai, India. Transferred to Digital Printing in 2014 Contents List of Tables List of Figures Acknowledgments Notes on Contributors vii viii ix x Introduction 1 Part I The Reality of Discourse and Discourse Analysis: Theory, Approaches, Practices 1 Reality television: a discourse-analytical perspective 9 Pilar Garcés-Conejos Blitvich and Nuria Lorenzo-Dus 2 Discourse approaches to the study of reality television 24 Nuria Lorenzo-Dus and Pilar Garcés-Conejos Blitvich Part II Reality Television and Identity 3 How real is reality television in China? On the success of a Chinese dating programme 43 Chris Shei 4 The (inter)play of nationality, religiosity and gender: textual mechanisms for the rich representation of Israeli identity on a reality race gamedoc 66 Michal Hamo 5 There s no harm, is there, in letting your emotions out : a multimodal perspective on language, emotion and identity in MasterChef Australia 88 Monika Bednarek 6 The aesthetics of poverty and crime in Argentinean reality television 115 María Laura Pardo 7 Heroic endeavours: flying high in New Zealand reality television 140 Philippa Smith v vi Contents Part III Reality Television and Aggression 8 (Im)politeness and exploitative TV in Britain and North America: The X Factor and American Idol 169 Jonathan Culpeper and Oliver Holmes 9 Impoliteness in US/UK talent shows: a diachronic study of the evolution of a genre 199 Nuria Lorenzo-Dus, Patricia Bou-Franch and Pilar Garcés-Conejos Blitvich 10 No eres inteligente ni para tener amigos Pues anda que tú [ You are not even clever enough to have any friends Look who s talking! ]: a quantitative analysis of the production and reception of impoliteness in present-day Spanish reality television 218 José Luis Blas Arroyo 11 You are killing your kids : framing and impoliteness in a health makeover reality TV show 245 Cynthia Gordon 12 Moments of truth: telling it like it is on The Jeremy Kyle Show 266 Andrew Tolson Index 288 List of Tables 3.1 Different turn structures between TMO and FCWR Categories of female response to light manipulation enquiry Extract one: from season 1, episode 2 of Junior MasterChef Australia Shot types in Junior MasterChef Extract two: from season 2, episode 8 of MasterChef Australia Shot types in MasterChef Australia Grammatical and semantic categories in Example Frequent focal categories in Example Hierarchical information in Example A.1 Translation 132 6A.2 Translation Rescue 1 prologue opening scenes The frequencies with which judges performed criticism and auditionees accepted it The frequencies of face threat mitigation in the bad auditions Transcription key Use of impoliteness superstrategies across two time periods Types of discourse moves in long sequences by roles (%) Impoliteness strategies in MHYV offensive moves Respondents ratings of participants in videos 1 to Respondents ratings of impoliteness by second speakers in videos 1 to vii List of Figures 3.1 Models of power structure amongst government, people and media Perspectives of reality for dating programmes Clusterings of interactive meanings ( Junior MasterChef ) Clusterings of interactive meanings (MasterChef Australia) Use of individual impoliteness strategies across the two time periods Types of counter moves in long sequences (%) Types of discourse moves in long sequences by gender (%) Respondents ratings of impoliteness by first speakers in videos 1 to Comparison between the respondents ratings of impoliteness by first speakers and the feeling of offence by the interlocutors (videos 1 to 4) Respondents ratings to the question: Although it is just a TV show designed to entertain, do you think the interlocutors have reasons to feel hurt by the speaker s words? Comparison between the respondents ratings of impoliteness by first and second speakers (videos 1 to 4) Respondents ratings to the question: Try to put yourself in the interlocutor s shoes: do you think you would have reacted in the same way in that situation? 238 viii Acknowledgments We would like to thank a number of people for their support in the preparation of this book. We are grateful to Olivia Middleton at Palgrave Macmillan for her diligence throughout, and to Jill Lake for her professionalism and advice during the editing process. We are also grateful to Joaquin Primo Pacheco for his work on the index, to the anonymous referees, who most constructively reported on first drafts of the different contributions included in this book, and of course to each and every one of our authors. Our warmest thanks, finally, go to our families. ix Notes on Contributors Monika Bednarek is Senior Lecturer in Linguistics at the University of Sydney. Her books include Evaluation in Media Discourse (about evaluative language use in British newspapers), Emotion Talk across Corpora (about the use of emotion words in different varieties of English) and The Language of Fictional Television: Drama and Identity (about the linguistic characteristics of television series). While she currently identifies most with the label corpus-based discourse analyst she occasionally dabbles in other methodologies, including qualitative multimodal discourse analysis. Monika s current research focuses on the discursive construal of news values as well as the discourse in and around television series. José Luis Blas Arroyo is Professor of Spanish Linguistics at the Universitat Jaume I (Castellón, Spain), where he teaches Sociolinguistics and Pragmatics in the Faculty of Arts. His main research areas are concerned with variationist and sociopragmatic topics (political discourse, (im)politeness, and so on), as well as bilingual issues related to Spanish in contact with other languages. He has published a number of books (Políticos en conflicto, Sociolingüística del español, Lenguas en contacto, Discurso y sociedad ) and many articles on these subjects in international journals and research monographs. Since 1998 he has headed the Sociolinguistic Laboratory at the Universitat Jaume I, and is currently co-editor of the academic journal Culture, Language and Representation. Patricia Bou-Franch is Associate Professor at the University of Valencia, Spain. Her research interests include television / computer-mediated communication, gender and discourse, interpersonal and cross-cultural communication. She has published in international journals such as Intercultural Pragmatics, Journal of Pragmatics, Journal of Computer- Mediated Communication, Journal of Politeness Research, Journal of Language and Politics, Gender and Language and Pragmatics and Society. She is editor of Ways into Discourse (2006), and co-editor of Discurso, Pragmática y Sociedad / Discourse, Pragmatics and Society (2007) and Gender and Sexual Identities in Transition: International Perspectives (2008). Jonathan Culpeper is Professor of English Language and Linguistics in the Department of Linguistics and English Language at Lancaster x Notes on Contributors xi University, UK. His work spans pragmatics, stylistics and the history of English. His major publications include Language and Characterisation in Plays and Other Texts (2001), Early Modern English Dialogues: Spoken Interaction as Writing (2010; co-authored with Merja Kytö), and Impoliteness: Using Language to Cause Offence (2011). He recently completed a three-year ESRC Fellowship investigating impoliteness. He is co-editor-in-chief of the Journal of Pragmatics. Pilar Garcés-Conejos Blitvich is Professor of English at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. She is interested in im/politeness models, genre and identity theories, and traditional and new media. Recent publications have appeared in international journals such as Intercultural Pragmatics, Journal of Pragmatics, Journal of Politeness Research, International Review of Pragmatics, Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, and Journal of Language and Politics. She recently co-edited Pragmatics and Context (2012) and guest edited special issues for Intercultural Pragmatics (2010) and Journal of Politeness Research (2013). She is co-editor of the series Advances in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis (CSP) and editor of the Journal of Language of Aggression and Conflict. Cynthia Gordon is Associate Professor of Communication and Rhetorical Studies at Syracuse University. She is author of Making Meanings, Creating Family: Intertextuality and Framing in Family Interaction (2009) and co-editor (with Deborah Tannen and Shari Kendall) of Family Talk: Discourse and Identity in Four American Families (2007). Her research interests include family discourse, health communication, and language and identity. Michal Hamo is a lecturer at the School of Communication, Netanya Academic College, Israel. Her research interests include discourse analysis, children s peer talk and broadcast talk, with a focus on the relations between the discursive patterns of popular television texts, particularly talk shows, reality television and broadcast television news, and their cultural, social and institutional contexts. Her publications have appeared in journals such as Discourse & Society and Media, Culture & Society. Oliver Holmes was an undergraduate in the Department of Linguistics and English Language at Lancaster University. In 2010, under the supervision of Jonathan Culpeper, he produced a dissertation entitled Ways of performing (im)politeness: A comparison of X-Factor and American Idol. Data from that dissertation form the foundation of his chapter. He is now pursuing a career in secondary/high school education. xii Notes on Contributors Nuria Lorenzo-Dus is Professor in English Language and Linguistics in the Department of English Language and Linguistics at Swansea University, where she also directs the Language Research Centre Her research expertise lies in the fields of media discourse analysis and pragmatics. She is author of Television Discourse (2009) and editor and chapter author of Spanish at Work: Analysing Institutional Discourse across the Spanish-speaking World (2010). Nuria Lorenzo-Dus has recently completed a collaborative AHRC project on mediated memory and the 2005 London bombings. She has published extensively on the discourse of citizens in the media, in journals such as Discourse & Communication, Journal of Pragmatics and Journal of Politeness Research. María Laura Pardo is Professor of Media Discourse Analysis at the University of Buenos Aires and researcher at the Argentinean CONICET. She is also founding Director of the Latin American Discourse Analysis Network for the Study of Poverty (REDLAD), Director of the Linguistics Department of the CIAFIC-CONICET, and author of numerous research monographs. Her most recent book is Metodología de la investigación lingüística. Método de análisis lingüístico sincrónico-diacrónico de textos (2011). Chris Shei has an MA in Linguistics, a PhD in TESOL from National Taiwan Normal University (1996), an MPhil in English and Applied Linguistics from the University of Cambridge, and a PhD in Informatics from the University of Edinburgh (2003). He has worked in Swansea University since 2003, teaching subjects in applied linguistics and translating between Chinese and English. His research interests include translation studies, computers and language, corpus linguistics, psycholinguistics, discourse analysis and Chinese and English language teaching. Philippa K. Smith is based at AUT University in Auckland, New Zealand where she is research manager at the Institute of Culture, Discourse and Communication and a lecturer in the School of Language and Culture. Her research interests are media, communication and discourse analysis and her doctoral thesis investigated the discursive construction of New Zealand national identity in online environments. Philippa has written about animated sit-coms and documentary series and she has co-authored a number of book chapters with Allan Bell, Professor of Language and Communication at AUT, covering topics such as news discourse, the language of journalism, and English in mass communication. Notes on Contributors xiii Andrew Tolson is Professor of Media and Communication at De Montfort University, Leicester. He is also a founder member of the international Ross Priory Broadcast Talk Seminar. His publications include Media Talk: Spoken Discourse on TV and Radio (2006) and Media Talk and Political Elections in Europe and America (co-edited with Mats Ekström, 2013). He has published articles on celebrity talk and reality television but most of his recent work focuses on media talk (extended interviews and debates) in political communication.
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