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Red List Guidelines

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Red List guidelines for Endangered species published by IUCN
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   Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria Version 11 (February 2014) Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. Citation: IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2014. Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 11. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. Downloadable from   http://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf .    THE IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES ™    Contents 1.   INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 4   2.   AN OUTLINE OF THE RED LIST CATEGORIES AND CRITERIA............................................... 4   2.1   T AXONOMIC LEVEL AND SCOPE OF THE CATEGORIZATION PROCESS  ........................................................ 4   2.1.1   Taxonomic scale of categorization ................................................................................................ 4   2.1.2   Geographical scale of categorization ........................................................................................... 6    2.1.3    Introduced taxa ............................................................................................................................. 7 2.1.4  Managed subpopulations................................................................................................................ 7 2.2    N ATURE OF THE CATEGORIES  .................................................................................................................. 8   2.2.1   Transfer between categories ....................................................................................................... 12   2.3    N ATURE OF THE CRITERIA ...................................................................................................................... 14   2.4   C ONSERVATION PRIORITIES AND ACTIONS  ............................................................................................. 17   2.5   D OCUMENTATION  .................................................................................................................................. 17   3.   DATA QUALITY .................................................................................................................................... 17   3.1   D ATA AVAILABILITY ,  INFERENCE AND PROJECTION  ............................................................................... 17   3.2   U  NCERTAINTY  ....................................................................................................................................... 19   3.2.1   Types of uncertainty .................................................................................................................... 19   3.2.2    Representing uncertainty ............................................................................................................ 19   3.2.3    Dispute tolerance and risk tolerance .......................................................................................... 19   3.2.4    Dealing with uncertainty ............................................................................................................. 20   3.2.5    Documenting uncertainty and interpreting listings ..................................................................... 21   3.2.6    Uncertainty and the application of the categories Data Deficient and Near Threatened ........... 21   4.   GUIDELINES FOR THE DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED IN THE CRITERIA ....................... 21   4.1   P OPULATION AND POPULATION SIZE ( CRITERIA A,   C  AND D) ................................................................ 21   4.2   S UBPOPULATIONS ( CRITERIA B  AND C) ................................................................................................. 21   4.3   M ATURE INDIVIDUALS ( CRITERIA A,   B,   C  AND D) ................................................................................. 22   4.3.1    Notes on defining mature individuals .......................................................................................... 22   4.3.2   Colonial or modular organisms .................................................................................................. 23   4.3.3    Fishes .......................................................................................................................................... 24   4.3.4   Sex-changing organisms ............................................................................................................. 24   4.3.5   Trees ............................................................................................................................................ 25   4.4   G ENERATION ( CRITERIA A,   C1  AND E) .................................................................................................. 25   4.5   R  EDUCTION ( CRITERION A) ................................................................................................................... 27   4.5.1    Estimating reduction ................................................................................................................... 27    4.5.2    Inferring or projecting population reduction .............................................................................. 28   4.6   C ONTINUING DECLINE ( CRITERIA B  AND C) ........................................................................................... 28   4.7   E XTREME FLUCTUATIONS ( CRITERIA B  AND C2) ................................................................................... 30   4.8   S EVERELY FRAGMENTED ( CRITERION B) ............................................................................................... 32   4.9   E XTENT OF OCCURRENCE ( CRITERIA A  AND B) ...................................................................................... 33   4.10   A REA OF OCCUPANCY ( CRITERIA A,   B  AND D) ...................................................................................... 36   4.10.1    Problems of scale ........................................................................................................................ 37    4.10.2    Methods for estimating AOO....................................................................................................... 37    4.10.3   The appropriate scale ................................................................................................................. 37    4.10.4   Scale-area relationships .............................................................................................................. 38   4.10.5   Scale correction factors .............................................................................................................. 39   4.10.6    Linear habitat .......................................................................................................................... 41   4.10.7     AOO and EOO based on habitat maps and models .................................................................... 42   4.11   L OCATION ( CRITERIA B  AND D) ............................................................................................................. 44   4.12   Q UANTITATIVE ANALYSIS ( CRITERION E) .............................................................................................. 44   5.   GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CRITERION A ............................................................................... 44   5.1   T HE USE OF TIME CAPS IN CRITERION A ................................................................................................. 46   5.2   H OW TO APPLY CRITERION A4 ............................................................................................................... 46   5.3   T HE SKI - JUMP EFFECT  ............................................................................................................................ 47   5.4   S EVERELY DEPLETED POPULATIONS  ...................................................................................................... 47   5.5   F ISHERIES  .............................................................................................................................................. 48   5.6   T REES  .................................................................................................................................................... 48   5.7   R  ELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOSS OF HABITAT AND POPULATION REDUCTION  ........................................... 48   5.8   T AXA WITH W IDELY D ISTRIBUTED OR M ULTIPLE P OPULATIONS  .......................................................... 49    Red List Guidelines 3   5.8.1    Estimating reduction ................................................................................................................... 50   5.8.2    Dealing with uncertainty ............................................................................................................. 54   6.   GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CRITERION B ............................................................................... 57   7.   GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CRITERION C ............................................................................... 58   8.   GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CRITERION D ............................................................................... 59   8.1   T AXA KNOWN ONLY FROM THE TYPE LOCALITY  .................................................................................... 60   8.2   E XAMPLE OF APPLYING CRITERION D .................................................................................................... 60   8.3   E XAMPLE OF APPLYING CRITERION D2 .................................................................................................. 60   9.   GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CRITERION E ............................................................................... 60   9.1   W HAT IS EXTINCTION ? ........................................................................................................................... 60   9.2   W HICH METHOD CAN BE USED ? ............................................................................................................. 61   9.3   A RE THERE SUFFICIENT DATA ? .............................................................................................................. 62   9.4   M ODEL COMPONENTS AND PARAMETERS  .............................................................................................. 62   9.4.1    Density dependence ..................................................................................................................... 62   9.4.2   Temporal variability.................................................................................................................... 63   9.4.3   Spatial variability ........................................................................................................................ 63   9.5   I  NCORPORATING UNCERTAINTY  ............................................................................................................. 64   9.6   D OCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS  ........................................................................................................ 64   10.   GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING THE CATEGORIES DD, NT AND NE ........................................ 64   10.1   W HEN TO USE THE CATEGORY  N EAR T HREATENED  ............................................................................... 64   10.2    N OT E VALUATED AND D ATA D EFICIENT  ............................................................................................. 665   10.3   W HEN TO USE D ATA D EFICIENT  ............................................................................................................ 66   11.   GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING THE EXTINCT CATEGORIES AND TAG ................................ 67   11.1   T HE EXTINCT CATEGORIES (EX  AND EW) ............................................................................................. 67   11.2   ‘P OSSIBLY E XTINCT ’  TAG FOR C RITICALLY E  NDANGERED TAXA  .......................................................... 68   11.2.1    Identifying Possibly Extinct species ............................................................................................ 68   11.2.2    Examples of Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) species ................................................... 70   12.   GUIDELINES FOR THREATENING PROCESSES .......................................................................... 71   12.1   G LOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE  .................................................................................................................... 71   12.1.1   Time horizons .............................................................................................................................. 71   12.1.2    Definition of Location under climate change .......................................................................... 73   12.1.3    Inferring population reduction and continuing decline from results of bioclimatic models ....... 74   12.1.4   Using criterion D2 .................................................................................................................... 775   12.1.5   Severe fragmentation .................................................................................................................. 76    12.1.6     Extreme fluctuations.................................................................................................................... 76    12.1.7    Criterion E .................................................................................................................................. 77    12.1.8   Using bioclimate models ............................................................................................................. 77    13.   REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................ 81   14.   APPENDIX: SUMMARY OF CHANGES TO THE GUIDELINES .................................................. 86    Red List Guidelines 4   1.   Introduction The IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria were first published in 1994 following six years of research and broad consultation (IUCN 1994). The 1994 IUCN Categories and Criteria were developed to improve objectivity and transparency in assessing the conservation status of species, and therefore to improve consistency and understanding among users. The 1994 categories and criteria were applied to a large number of species in compiling the 1996 Red List of Threatened Animals. The assessment of many species for the 1996 Red List drew attention to certain areas of difficulty, which led IUCN to initiate a review of the 1994 categories and criteria, which was undertaken during 1998 to 1999. This review was completed and the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (version 3.1) are now published (IUCN 2001, 2012b). This document provides guidelines to the application of version 3.1 of the categories and criteria, and in so doing addresses many of the issues raised in the process of reviewing the 1994 categories and criteria. This document explains how the criteria should be applied to determine whether a taxon belongs in a category of threat, and gives examples from different taxonomic groups to illustrate the application of the criteria. These guidelines also provide detailed explanations of the definitions of the many terms used in the criteria. The guidelines should be used in conjunction with the official IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria booklet (IUCN 2001, 2012b). We expect to review and update these guidelines periodically, and input from all users of the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria are welcome. We especially welcome IUCN Specialist Groups and Red List Authorities to submit examples that are illustrative of these guidelines. We expect that the changes to these guidelines will be mostly additions of detail and not changes in substance. In addition, we do not expect the IUCN Red List Criteria to  be revised in the near future, because a stable system is necessary to allow comparisons over time. 2.   An Outline of the Red List Categories and Criteria 2.1   Taxonomic level and scope of the categorization process 2.1.1   Taxonomic scale of categorization The criteria may be applied to any taxonomic unit at or below the species level. In these guidelines, the terms ‘ taxon ’ and ‘taxa’ are used to represent species or lower taxonomic levels, including forms that are not yet fully described. There is sufficient range among the different criteria to enable appropriate listing of taxa from the complete taxonomic spectrum, with the exception of micro-organisms. In presenting the results of applying criteria, the taxonomic unit used (species, subspecies, etc.) should be specified. It should be noted that taxa below the rank of variety (e.g., forma, morph, cultivar), are NOT included on the IUCN Red List, with the exception of assessments of subpopulations. Before assessments of taxa  below the species level (subspecies, variety or subpopulation) can be included on the IUCN Red List, an assessment of the full species is also required.
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