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  LIBRARY Citing your references using the Harvard ( uthor-Date) system Is this the correct guide for you? Before using this guide, please check whether your Department, School or Faculty specifies the use of a particular referencing style and, if so, if it provides its own guidelines to that style. The information in this guide is in line with that contained in Cite them right online  - accessible from http!!!library!skill!skill d.html and the printed book e#uivalent$ears, %. and Shields, &.'() *+ Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. th edn. Basingstoke $algrave acmillan  in the /ibrary at 0)0.)( $12. Why is it important to cite references? ã 3t is accepted practice in the academic world to acknowledge the words, ideas or work of others and not simply to use them as if they were your own. Failure to do this could be regarded as plagiarism -see http!!!library!skill!plagiarism.html ã to enable other people to identify and trace your sources #uickly and easily ã to support facts and claims you have made in your te4t 1. In-text citations The in-text citation  is placed at the e4act point in your document where you refer to someone else5s work, whether it is a book, 6ournal, online document, website or any other source. The following guidelines apply to all types of sources, including online documents & websites. 3t consists of author 'or editor+ and publication year, in brackets eg Agriculture still employs half a million people in rural Britain (Shucksmith, 2000).  2n author can be an organisation or &overnment Department 'known as a 7corporate author5+ eg (English Heritage, 2010) 3f there are ( or * authors, both, or all *, names should be given eg (ines, !ritchar an #alker, 200$) WWWBR!! #$AC% &LIBRARY %esearch &uide (   There are 2 parts to a referencing system: (1) an in-text citation (2) an entry in the reference list/bibliography at the end of the assignment/work   3f there are 8 or more authors, cite the first author, followed by 7 et al.’   'in italics+ eg (%organ et al ., 201&) For several documents by the same author published in the same year, use 'a,b,c+ eg  (#atson, 200'a) 3f the author5s name occurs naturally in the sentence, only the year of publication is given eg n his groun reaking stu y, *ones (201+)  3f the date cannot be identified, use the phrase 7no date5 eg (aour !arty, no ate) 3f there is no author, use a brief title instead 'title is in italics + eg ( Burden of anonymity  , 1'+-) age number!s # These should be included when there is a need to be more specific, e.g. referring to specific information or data, or when making a direct #uotation. 9se p.'for a single page+ or pp. 'for more than one page+. 3f page numbers are not given 'e.g. for some ebooks+, use the information that is available, such as :0;. eg (hompson, 2011, p.100) or (hompson, 2011, /-) $iting a web page# This should follow the preceding guidelines  so use author and date where possible< if no author then use title and date< if no author or title use 9%/ and date eg (., 201+) %econdary sources#  'this means a document which you have not seen but which is mentioned or #uoted in one of your references+. The two items should be linked with the term 7cited in5 or 7#uoted in5 eg urners analysis of e3elopment tren s (2000, cite in #alker, 200+, p./& +. NB for above example of secondary sources: You would only be able to include the source you have actually read in your reference list, so unless you have read Turner  yourself you would only be able to include Walker in your reference list. It is good practice to try to read the srcinal source (Turner so that you can cite and reference it in addition tothe source which mentioned it (Walker  +.   andling 'uotations in the text %hort (uotations  may be run into the te4t, using single or double #uotation marks (be consistent):   eg As 4ens state (200-, p.'$), 5the 3alue of... )onger (uotations  should be separated from the rest of the te4t by means of indentation and do not need #uotation marks 2  eg Simone e Beau3oir (1'$2, p.&6/) e7amine her on past an rote rather gloomily8  he past is not a peaceful lan scape lying there ehin me, a country inhich  can stroll here3er  please, an ill gra ually sho me all its secret hills an ates. As  as mo3ing forar , so it as crumling. *. +eference listbibliography  2t the end of your assignment!work you need to provide a complete list of all sources used. $lease notethat some Departments, Schools or Faculties may e4pect ( lists  ' + a reference list of all sources cited in your te4t and '(+ a general bibliography of sources used but not specifically cited as in-te4t citations.The entries in the list's+ are arranged in one alphabetical se(uence  by author5s name, title if there is noauthor, 9%/ if no author or title  whateer has been used in the in-text citation , so that your reader can go easily from an in-te4t citation to the correct point in your list. 2ll entries!references, including those for online resources , must contain author, year of publication and title 'if known+ in that order. Further additional details are also re#uired, varying according to the type of source, as follows oo/s# 0boo/s   which loo/ the same as a printed boo/, with publication details and pagination#+eports  print and online !pdfs #12uthor0ditor# Surname!family name first, followed by initials. 3nclude all authors. For editors, use 'ed.+ or 'eds+. %emember that an author can be an organisation or &overnment Department.  *3ear of publication# &ive the year of publication in round brackets, or 'no date+. 4Title# 3nclude title as given on the title page of a book< include any sub-title, separating it from the title by a colon.   =apitalise the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns.   9se italics . 50dition# >nly include if not the first edition. 1dition is abbreviated to 7edn5. 6lace of publication and publisher# 9se a colon to separate these elements. 3f more than oneplace of publication, use the first or most prominent. 7%eries# 3nclude if relevant, after the publisher. eg  Shone, A. an !arry, B. (201&) !uccessful event management a practical handbook. +th e n. An o3er8 9engage earning. E7ample of organisation:;o3ernment <epartment as author8 eg  <epartment of Health (2012) #anual of nutrition. 12th e n. on on8 S4.   E7ample of ook ith no author8 eg Whitaker$s almanack (201&) on on8 * #hitaker an Sons.&  0boo/s for which bibliographic details such as page numbers are not aailable !typically on a personal edeice such as a 8indle #   1  2uthor!editor  * ?ear of publication 'in round brackets+ 4 Title 'use italics + 5  2vailable at 9%/ 6 'Downloaded date+ eg %arr, A. (2012)  % history of the world. A3ailale at8 http8:: le>eooks (<onloa e 8 2& *une 201+). $hapter in boo/# 1  2uthor of chapter  * ?ear of publication 4 Title of chapter 'in single #uotation marks+ 5 7in5 and then author, title of complete book (in italics),  place of publication, publisher, page numbers of chapter. eg  Smith, H. (1''0) 5nno3ation at large, in *ames, S. (e .) !cience and innovation.  %anchester8 ?o3on, pp. +6>/0. 9ournal articles, print and electronic#1  2uthor  * ?ear of publication 4 Title of article 'in single #uotation marks+ 5 Title of 6ournal (in italics) =apitalise the first letter of each word in title, e4cept for words such as 7and5, 7the5, 7of5 6 @olume number 'unbracketed+,   issue number and!or date 'all in round brackets+ 7 $age numbers : D>3 'if an e6ournal and if available+ NB: URL and date accessed are not required, but you can include a DOI Di!ital Ob ect Identi#er$ if you %is& E7ample of print or online @ournal article8 eg %atsaganis, %. (2011) 5he elfare state an the crisis8 the case of ;reece,  &ournal of 'uropean !ocial olicy, 21(/), pp./01>/12.E7ample of online @ournal article inclu ing oi8 eg #illiams, *. (2000) 5ools for achie3ing sustainale housing strategies in rural ;loucestershire, lanning ractice ) *esearch,  1/(&), pp.1//>1$+. oi8 10.10-0:026'$+/00200001&1 ;ewspaper articles :   !otter, . (201&)   5ime to take stock, The +uardian, 20 %ay, p.1/. Web page t&e main %ebpa!e, not a pdf on t&e %ebpa!e$:   4CA% (201&) +ender  ustice. A3ailale at8 http8::policy>>ork:gen er>@ustice +
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