Medicine, Science & Technology

Reinterpretation of Music Based on Visual Cues in Virtual Spaces

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Digital games rely on precomposed music, usually associated with certain moods or feelings that the composer or game designer wishes to express in particular sections of the game. By removing precomposed music and replacing it with procedurally
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  Reinterpretation of musicaccording to visual cues invirtual spaces Simon Cutajar Supervisors: Dr. Julian Togelius, Dr. Mark Nelson Department of GamesIT University of Copenhagen 3rd June 2013 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of M.Sc.  Department of Games Declaration I, the undersigned, declare that the dissertation entitled: Reinterpretation of music according to visual cues in virtual spaces submitted is my work, except where acknowledged and referenced. Simon Cutajar3rd June 2013 ii  Acknowledgements First of all, I’d like to thank my supervisors Dr. Julian Togelius and Dr. MarkJ. Nelson for the guidance they gave me while I was working on the project. I’dalso like to thank Dr. Alessandro Canossa, Dr. Miguel Sicart, and Antonis Liapisfor their helpful suggestions while working on the project.I’d like to thank my friends (both my colleagues at the IT University of Copen-hagen as well as old friends from Malta) for bearing with me while I worked on mythesis and for providing relevant feedback and criticism to the project. Specialthanks to Ioana Marin for creating the 3D environment used in the project.Lastly, I’d like to thank my family for supporting me through the 2 years of my Masters and for always believing in me. Special thanks to my mother IsabelleGalea, and to Nina Croitoru, for proofreading my thesis.iii  Abstract Digital games rely on precomposed music, usually associated with certainmoods or feelings that the composer or game designer wishes to express in par-ticular sections of the game. By removing precomposed music and replacing itwith procedurally generated music, we can have the music change according todifferent cues in the environment, thus creating a fresh, dynamic experience.The aim of this paper is to demonstrate an algorithm that is capable of contin-uously creating procedural music for game environments in a real-time environ-ment. It also demonstrates the feasibility of an experimental but flexible systemthat combines the procedural generation of music using 1D cellular automatawith music → colour mappings taken from already existing literature. A third aimis to try and recreate a synaesthetic experience for non-synaethetes.We have managed to build a simple system that demonstrates a continuousalgorithm that creates music in a 3D environment, based on the surroundings.We evaluate the system by seeing which scales and colours are chosen in certainareas of our environment.iv  Contents 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Goal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 Technologies Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.4 Project Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 I Literature Review 4 2. Procedural Music 53. Music Generation 7 3.1 Music Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.2 Music Generation Using Cellular Automata . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. Mappings 14 4.1 Music → Colour Mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144.2 Other Mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 II Methodology 21 5. Design and Implementation 22 5.1  MIDI-dot-NET   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225.1.1 MIDI Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225.1.2 Note Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235.1.3 Time Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235.1.4 Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245.1.5 Instruments and Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255.2 Generating Music Based On The Virtual World . . . . . . . . . . 255.2.1 Music → Colour Mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255.2.2 Extracting Colours from the Viewport . . . . . . . . . . . 265.2.3 Generating Music Based On Character Speed . . . . . . . 275.3 Cellular Automata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27v
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