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report in method of research(Ethnographic Research).docx

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What is Ethnographic Research?  Ethnographic research, or ethnography, is both a study of interactive strategies in human life and an analytical descriptions of social scenes, individuals, and groups that recreate their shared feelings, beliefs, practices, artifacts, folk knowledge, and actions.  Ethnography is interactive research, it requires relatively extensive time in a site or systematically observe, interview, and record processes as they occur naturally at the selected location.  Ethn
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  What is Ethnographic Research?      Ethnographic research, or ethnography, is both a study of interactive strategies in human life and an analytical descriptions of social scenes, individuals, and groups that recreate their shared feelings, beliefs, practices, artifacts, folk knowledge, and actions.    Ethnography is interactive research, it requires relatively extensive time in a site or systematically observe, interview, and record processes as they occur naturally at the selected location.    Ethnography has been called educational anthropology, participant observation, field research, and naturalistic inquiry. Despite considerable variation among ethnographic studies, common methodological strategies distinguish this style of inquiry: participant observation, ethnographic interviews, and artifact collection and analysis. Most ethnographic studies are exploratory or discovery-oriented research to understand peoples' views of their world and to develop new concepts. Example    The Bubblio's living room is a good resource site on ethnography   2 kinds of ethnographic Research      Classic ethnographic research  involves a detailed description of the whole of a culture outside of the country of srcin of the researcher. Traditionally those engaging in ethnographic research spend years in the place of study, also known as the “field.” As a result of the time spent  living among communities, ethnographers have been able to produce thick written cultural descriptions known as ethnographies that communicate the information found in the field.    Contemporary ethnographic research has the added dimension of not only looking at people outside of the country of srcin of the researcher, but also seeks to better understand those who reside within the county of srcin. Contemporary ethnographic research looks at what may be considered ordinary or mundane to those living within a community, for example shopping malls, corporations, towns, cities, cyberspace, garbage, libraries,  parks, etc,   What are Ethnographic Research methodologies?  There are several ways researchers conduct ethnographic research. Each, however, is designed to perform a specific task. Each method is designed to solicit a particular kind of information from participants. Some methods widely used by ethnographic researchers include: Participant Observation   Researcher's Role in Participant Observation Possible Research Roles Role Description Use Observer Researcher is physically and  psychological absent Inappropriate for ethnographic study; may  be used for other forms of qualitative research Participant Researcher lives through an experience and recollects personal insight Inappropriate for ethnographic research Participant-observer Researcher creates role for purpose of study Typical role in ethnographic study Insider-observer Researcher has a formal position in organization Used in special circumstances Interviewer Establishes role with each person interviewed Primarily used in ethnographic interview studies Requirements of Participant Observation Participant observation must meet the following requirements: 1.   On-site observation 2.   Prolonged data collection 3.   Participants' constructed realities that can be verbal, nonverbal, and tacit 4.   Corroboration of field observations through multiple methods, multiple  participants, and multiple situations 5.   Salient observations about who, what, where, when, how, and why? 6.   Recording observations  Stages of Participant Observation The process of participant observation is like a funnel, progressively narrowing and directing researchers' attention deeper into the elements of the setting that has emerged as theoretically and/or empirically essential. Participant observation usually follows the following stages:    Site Selection: Negotiation and permission seeking    Initial observation, field mapping and purposeful sampling    Focus observation    Closing observation: observation data gathering continues until researchers achieve theoretical saturation--that is, when the generic features of their new data consistently replicate earlier ones. Example  Ethnographic Interviews Ethnographic interviews are open-response questions to obtain data of participant meanings--how individuals conceive of their world and how they explain or make sense of the important events in their lives. There are three types of interviews: informal conversation interview, interview guide approach interview, and standardized open-ended interview. Sequence of Interview Effective interviews depend on following a number of guidelines: 1.   Accessing the setting 2.   Understanding the language and culture of the respondents 3.   Deciding on how to present oneself 4.   Locating an informant 5.   Field testing and refine questions, probes, intensity of pause 6.   Statements of the researcher's purpose and focus 7.   Establishing rapport and gaining trust 8.   Ordering questions appropriately 9.   Audio taping and maintaining interview records  10.   Collecting relevant materials Tao Kwan-Gett's Tips on Ethnographic Interview   Document and Artifact Collection Artifact collection is a non interactive strategy for obtaining ethnographic data with little or no reciprocity between the researcher and the participant. Artifact collections are tangible manifestations of the beliefs and behaviors that form a culture, and they describe peoples' experience, knowledge, actions, and values. Analysis of documents and artifact are usually supplementary to participant observations and ethnographic interviews. Types of Artifacts 1.   Personal documents 2.   Official documents 3.   Objects 4.   Erosion measures      Literature Review:    before attempting to contact individuals for a study, ethnographic researchers read literature about the subject under study. This is an important step because the researcher does not want to repeat other studies. An ethnographer can also learn from what is missing in the literature. Local historical sources are important in placing a study within the proper context, a context that should take into consideration interrelated issues, settings, the environment, and relationships. Nothing is worse than a participant correcting a researcher on common knowledge! For an example of how a literature review can aid in understanding a people or place, see I. Susser’s “ The Construction of Poverty   and Homelessness in US Cites ” and Michael Moffatt’s “ Ethnographic Writing   about American Culture .”      Life History:   a type of interview that reveals an individual’s lived experiences over a chronological period of time. They are usually centered around a particular theme (e.g., experiences with discrimination over one’s lifetime) and are very
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