RFCC Process Technology Manual

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    UOP Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process   Process Technology Manual ORPIC Sohar, Oman September 2012 – LIMITED DISTRIBUTION – This material is UOP LLC technical information of a confidential nature  for use only by personnel within your organization requiring the information. The material shall not be reproduced in any manner or distributed for any  purpose whatsoever except by written permission of UOP LLC and except as authorized under agreements with UOP LLC.  157048 Table of Contents Page 1 FCC PROCESS TECHNOLOGY TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION II. PROCESS FLOW Reactor Regenerator Main Column Gas Concentration and Recovery III. PROCESS CONTROL Reactor Regenerator Main Column Gas Concentration IV. EQUIPMENT Process Equipment and Its Use Metallurgical Corrosion V. FLUIDIZED SOLIDS Theory  Applications to Fluid Catalytic Cracking VI. CATALYST History Modern FCC Catalysts Time and Temperature Effects Poisons Catalyst Management Catalyst Properties and Testing VII. PROCESS VARIABLES Reactor and Regenerator Process Variables Feedstock VIII. PROCESS CALCULATIONS FCC Flow Corrections and Mass Balance Liquid Product Cutpoint Corrections Reactor and Regenerator Heat Balance FCC Unit Mechanical Summaries  Additional FCC Unit Calculations  157048 Table of Contents Page 2 IX. FEED AND PRODUCT TREATING Feed Treating Product Treating – Reasons and Methods X. ANALYTICAL METHODS Minimum Sample Size Typical Sampling Schedule Outline of FCCU Laboratory Methods XI. PROCEDURES Refractory Dryout Startup Shutdown Emergencies Catalyst Handling FCC Unit Evaluation XII. SAFETY General  Additional Safety Precautions for Entering Vessels High Temperature Problems Chemical Hazards XIII. ENVIRONMENTAL Emissions Sources and Solutions  157048 Introduction Page 1 Introduction UOP Company History For more than 80 years, UOP has been one of the world’s leading licensors of new and innovative technology. Today, UOP continues in this role with 30 offices on 4 continents and 9 manufacturing facilities worldwide. UOP currently licenses and designs more than 60 different processes and has a total of 5,500 units licensed worldwide. For the last 50 years, the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process has been an important and successful part of UOP's licensing activities. The Early Years UOP was founded in 1914 as the National Hydrocarbon Company on the strength of patent rights developed from the pioneering work of Jesse A. Dubbs, a California inventor. The company was financed by a noted Chicagoan, J. Ogden Armour. In 1915, the company name was changed to Universal Oil Products Company. From the beginning, the goal of the company was to develop and commercialize technology for license to the petroleum refining industry. Under the direction of C. P. (Carbon Petroleum) Dubbs, son of Jesse Dubbs, research and development work continued at the company's small site near Independence, Kansas, where the famous Dubbs Thermal Cracking process was successfully demonstrated in 1919. The then-revolutionary process became the foundation of UOP's rapid growth and its early worldwide recognition by the industry. The early period of growth was ably directed by its president, Hiram J. Halle, and by Dr. Gustav Egloff, one of the world’s leading petroleum chemists. In 1931, UOP established its headquarters in Chicago and its research laboratories in nearby Riverside, Illinois. That same year the ownership of UOP passed to a consortium of its major licensees, led by Shell and Standard Oil of California.
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