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San Bedaq Red Notes on Civil Law

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   RedNotesinCivilLaw 113   C IVIL  L AW   2005  C ENTRALIZED  B  AR   O PERATIONS   MOST FREQUENTLY ASKED TOPCS N C!L LA Source: U.P. Law Center  Persons and Family Relations TOPC# REQUREMENTS FOR T$E !ALDTY OF MARRA%E &1'(') 1''*) 1''+) 1''3) 1'',) 1''-) 1''.) 1''() 1''') +**+/ IWhat is the status of the following marriages and why?A.A marriage between two 19-year olds without parental consent.B.A marriage between two 21-year olds without parental adice.!.A marriage between two ilipino first cousins in #pain where such marriage is alid.$.A marriage between two ilipinos in %ong &ong before a notary public.'.A marriage solemni(ed by a town mayor three towns away from his )urisdiction. *1999+ ANS ERS# A. ,he marriage is oidable. ,he consent of the parties to the marriage was defectie. Being below 21 years old the consent of the parties is not full without the consent of their parents. ,he consent of the parents of the parties to the marriage is indispensable for its alidity.B. Between 21-year olds the marriage is alid despite the absence of parental adice because such absence is merely an irregularity affecting a formal reuisite /i.e. the marriage license0and does not affect the alidity of the marriage itself. ,his is without pre)udice to the ciil criminal or administratie liability of the party responsible therefore.!. By reason of public policy the marriage between ilipino first cousins is oid Art. 3 par. *1+ !4 and the fact that it is considered a alid marriage in a foreign country in this case #pain0does not alidate it being an e5ception to the general rule in Art. 26 of said !ode which accords alidity to all marriages solemni(ed outside the 7hilippines 5 5 5 and alid there as such.$. It depends. If the marriage before the notary public is alid under %ong &ong law the marriage is alid in the 7hilippines. 8therwise the marriage that is inalid in %ong &ong will be inalid in the 7hilippines.'. nder the :ocal ;oernment !ode a town mayor may alidly solemni(e a marriage but said law is silent as to the territorial limits for the e5ercise by a town mayor of such authority. %oweer by analogy with the authority of members of the )udiciary to solemni(e a marriage it would seem that the mayor did not hae the reuisite authority to solemni(e a marriage outside of his territorial )urisdiction. %ence the marriage is oid unless it was contracted with either or both parties belieing in good faith that the mayor had the legal authority to solemni(e this particular marriage Art. < par. *2+ !4. ALTERNAT!E ANS ERS# !. ,he marriage is oid. nder Article 26 of the amily !ode a marriage alid where celebrated is alid in the 7hilippines e5cept those marriages enumerated in said Article which marriages will remain oid een though alid where solemni(ed. ,he marriage between first cousins is one of those marriages enumerated therein hence it is oid een though alid in #pain where it was celebrated.$. If the two ilipinos belieed in good faith that the =otary 7ublic is authori(ed to solemni(e marriage then the marriage is alid.'. ,he marriage is alid. nder the :ocal ;oernment !ode the authority of a mayor to solemni(e marriages is not restricted within his municipality implying that he has the authority een outside the territory thereof. %ence the marriage he solemni(ed outside his municipality is alid. And een assuming that his authority is restricted within his municipality such marriage will    San0edaColle1eo2Law 11,  San Beda College of Law   C IVIL  L AW   neertheless be alid because solemni(ing the marriage outside said municipality is a mere irregularity applying by analogy the case of Navarro vs. Domagtoy   2<9 #!>A 129. In this case the #upreme !ourt held that the celebration by a )udge of a marriage outside the )urisdiction of his court is a mere irregularity that did not affect the alidity of the marriage notwithstanding Article  of the amily !ode which proides that an incumbent member of the )udiciary is authori(ed to solemni(e marriages only within the court@s )urisdiction. OT$ER ALTERNAT!E ANS ERS# !. By reason of Article 1< in relation to Article 3 of the !iil !ode which applies to ilipinos whereer they are the marriage is oid.'. ,he marriage is oid because the mayor has no authority to solemni(e marriage outside his )urisdiction.II8n alentine@s $ay 1996 'lias and ely both single and 2< years of age went to the city hall where they sought out a fi5er to help them obtain a uicie marriage. or a fee the fi5er produced an ante-dated marriage license for them issued by the !iil >egistrar of a small remote municipality. %e then brought them to a licensed minister in a restaurant behind the city hall and the latter solemni(ed their marriage right there and then. A.Is their marriage alid oid or oidable? B.Would your answer be the same if it should turn out that the marriage license was spurious? '5plain. *1996+ ANS ERS# A.,he marriage is alid. ,he irregularity in the issuance of a alid license does not adersely affect the alidity of the marriage. ,he marriage license is alid because it was in fact issued by a !iil >egistrar *Arts.  and C !+.B. =o the answer would not be the same. ,he marriage would be oid because of the absence of a formal reuisite. In such a case there was actually no alid marriage license. ALTERNAT!E ANS ER# A. It depends. If both or one of the parties was a member of the religious sect of the solemni(ing officer the marriage is alid. If none of the parties is a member of the sect and both of them were aware of the fact the marriage is oid. ,hey cannot claim good faith in belieing that the solemni(ing officer was authori(ed because the scope of the authority of the solemni(ing officer is a matter of law. If howeer one of the parties belieed in good faith that the other was a member of the sect then the marriage is alid under Article <*2+ !. In that case the party in good faith is acting under a mistae of fact not a mistae of law. TOPC# PROPERTY RELATONS 0ET EEN $US0AND AND FE &1'(') 1''+) 1'',) 1'') 1''() +***/ IIn 19 Dauricio a ilipino pensioner of the .#. ;oernment contracted a bigamous marriage with 'rlinda despite the fact that his first wife !arol was still liing. In 19< Dauricio and 'rlinda )ointly bought a parcel of >iceland with the title being placed )ointly in their names. #hortly thereafter they purchased another property *a house and lot+ which was placed in her name alone as the buyer. In 1931 Dauricio died and !arol promptly filed an action against 'rlinda to recoer both the >iceland and the house and lot claiming them to be con)ugal property of the first marriage. 'rlinda contends that she and the late Dauricio were co-owners of the >icelandE and with respect to the house and lot she claims she is the e5clusie owner. Assuming she fails to proe that she had actually used her own money in either purchase how do you decide the case? *1993+ ANS ER#   RedNotesinCivilLaw 113   C IVIL  L AW   2005  C ENTRALIZED  B  AR   O PERATIONS   !arol@s action to recoer both the >iceland and the house and lot is well-founded. Both are con)ugal property in iew of the failure of 'rlinda the wife in a bigamous marriage to proe that her own money was used in the purchases made. ,he #upreme !ourt in a case applied Art. 1C3 amily !ode despite the fact that the husband@s death too place prior to the effectiity of said law. %oweer een under Art. 1CC !iil !ode the same conclusion would hae been reached in iew of the bigamous nature of the second marriage. ANOT$ER ANS ER# nder Art. 1C3 of the ! which applies to bigamous marriages only the properties acuired by both parties through their actual )oint contribution of money property or industry shall be owned by them in common in proportion to their respectie contributions. Doreoer if one of the parties is alidly married to another his share in the co-ownership shall accrue to the absolute communityFcon)ugal partnership e5isting in such alid marriage.,hus in this case since 'rlinda failed to proe that she used her own money to buy the >iceland and house and lot she cannot claim to be the co-owner of the >iceland nor the e5clusie owner of the house and lot. #uch properties are Dauricio@s. And since his share accrues to the con)ugal partnership with carol !arol can alidly claim such properties to the e5clusion of 'rlinda *Art. 1CC !iil !ode+.IIIn 19G Bob and Issa got married without e5ecuting a marriage settlement. In 19< Bob inherited from his father a residential lot upon which in 1931 he constructed a two-room bungalow with saings from his own earnings. At that time the lot was worth 73GGGGG while the house when finished cost 76GGGGG. In 1939 Bob died suried only by his wife Issa and his mother #ofia. Assuming that the relatie alues of both assets remained at the same proportionHA.#tate whether #ofia can rightfully claim that the house and lot are not con)ugal but e5clusie property of her deceased son.B.Will your answer be the same if Bob died before August  1933? *1993+ ANS ERS# A. #ince Bob and Issa got married in 19G then the law that goerns is the =ew !iil !ode *7ersons+ in which case the property relations that should be applied as regards the property of the spouses is the system of relatie community or con)ugal partnership of gains *Art. 119 !iil !ode+. By con)ugal partnership of gains the husband and wife place in a common fund the fruits of their separate property and the income from their wor or industry *Article 1C2 !iil !ode+. In this instance the lot inherited by Bob in 19< is his own separate property he haing acuired the same by lucratie title *Art. 1C3 par. 2 !iil !ode+. %oweer the house constructed from his own saings in 1931 during the subsistence of his marriage with Issa is con)ugal property and not e5clusie property in accordance with the principle of reerse accessionJ proided for in Art. 1<3 !iil !ode.B. Kes the answer would still be the same. #ince Bob and Issa contracted their marriage way bac in 19G then the property relations that will goern is still the relatie community or con)ugal partnership of gains *Art. 119 !iil !ode+. It will not matter if Bob died before or after August  1933 *effectiity of the amily !ode+ what matters is the date when the marriage was contracted. As Bob and Issa contracted their marriage way bac in 19G the property relation that goerns them is still the con)ugal partnership of gains. *Art. 1<3 !iil !ode+ ALTERNAT!E ANS ERS# A. #ofia being her deceased son@s legal heir concurring with his suriing spouse *Arts. 93< 936 and 99 !iil !ode+ may rightfully claim that the house and lot are not con)ugal but belong to the hereditary estate of Bob the alue of the land being more than the cost of the improement *Art. 12G !+.B. If Bob died before August  1933 which is the date the amily !ode too effect the answer will not be the same. Art. 1<3 !iil !ode would then apply. ,he land would then be deemed con)ugal along with the house since con)ugal funds were used in constructing it. ,he husband@s estate would be entitled to reimbursement of the alue of the land from con)ugal partnership funds.    San0edaColle1eo2Law 11,  San Beda College of Law   C IVIL  L AW   III or fie years since 1939 ,ony a ban ice-president and #usan an entertainer lie together as husband and wife without the benefit of marriage although they were capacitated to marry each other. #ince ,ony@s salary was more than enough for their needs #usan stopped woring and merely ept the houseJ. $uring that period ,ony was able to buy a lot and house in a plush subdiision. %oweer after fie years ,ony and #usan decided to separate.A.Who will be entitled to the house and lot?B.Would it mae any difference if ,ony could not marry #usan because he was preiously married to Alice from whom he is legally separated? *2GGG+ ANS ERS# A.,ony and #usan are entitled to the house and lot as co-owners in eual shares. nder Article 1C of the amily !ode when a man and a woman who are capacitated to marry each other lied e5clusiely with each other as husband and wife the property acuired during their cohabitation are presumed to hae been obtained by their )oint efforts  wor or industry and shall be owned by then in eual shares. ,his is true een though the efforts of one of them consisted merely in his or her care and maintenance of the family and of the household.B.Kes it would mae a difference. nder Article 1C3 of the amily !ode when the parties to the cohabitation could not marry each other because of an impediment only those properties acuired by both of them through their actual )oint contribution of money property or industry shall be owned by them in common in proportion to their respectie contributions. ,he efforts of one of the parties in maintaining the family and household are not considered adeuate contribution in the acuisition of the properties.#ince #usan did not contribute to the acuisition of the house and lot she has no share therein. If ,ony cohabited with #usan after his legal separation from Alice the house and lot is his e5clusie property. If he cohabited with #usan before his legal separation from Alice the house and lot belongs to his community or partnership with Alice. I:uis and >i((a both 26 years of age and single lie e5clusiely with each other as husband and wife without the benefit of marriage. :uis is gainfully employed. >i((a is not employed stays at home and taes charge of the household chores.After liing together for a little oer twenty years :uis was able to sae from his salary earnings during that period the amount of 72GGGGG presently deposited in a ban. A house and lot worth 7<GGGGG was recently purchased for the same amount by the couple. 8f the 7<GGGGG used by the common-law spouses to purchase the property 72GGGGG had come from the sale of palay harested from the hacienda owned by :uis and 7GGGGG from the rentals of a building belonging to >i((a. In fine the sum of 7<GGGGG had been part of the fruits receied during the period of cohabitation from their separate property. A car worth 71GGGGG being used by the common-law spouses was donated )ust months ago to >i((a by her parents.:uis and >i((a now decide to terminate their cohabitation and they as you to gie them your legal adice on the followingHA.%ow under the law should the ban deposit of 72GGGGG the house and lot alued at 7<GGGGG and the car worth 71GGGGG be allocated to them? B. What would your answer be *to the aboe uestion+ had :uis and >i((a been liing together all the time i.e.  since twenty years ago under a alid marriage? *199+ ANS ERS# A. Art. 1C of the ! proides in part that when a man and a woman who are capacitated to marry each other lie e5clusiely with each other as husband and wife without the benefit of marriage or under a oid marriage their wages and salaries shall be owned by them in eual shares and the property acuired by both of them through their wor or industry shall be goerned by the rules of co-ownership.

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