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  Sanskrit  (/ ˈ sænskr  ɪ t/;  संक   ृतम   ्   saṃskṛtam  [ mk   m , srcinally संक   ृता    वाक   ्   saṃskṛtā   vāk  ,  refined   speech ) is a historical Indo-Aryan language, the primary liturgical language of  Hinduism and   a literary and scholarly language in Buddhism and Jainism. Developing from Vedic Sanskrit, today it is   listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India [3]  and is an official language of the state   of  Uttarakhand. [4]  Sanskrit holds a prominent position inIndo-European studies.    The corpus of  Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and dharma texts. Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a   ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the forms of  hymns and mantras. Spoken Sanskrit has been revised in some villages with traditional institutions,   and there are attempts at further popularisation. he Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta -  may be translated as put together, constructed, well or completely formed; refined, adorned, highly elaborated . It is derived from the root saṃ -skar-   to put together, compose, arrange, prepare , [5]  where saṃ -   together (as English same ) and (s)kar-   do, make . The term in the generic meaning of made ready, prepared, completed, finished is found in the Rigveda. Also in Vedic Sanskrit, as nominalised neuter saṃskṛtám , it means preparation,   prepared place and thus ritual enclosure, place for a sacrifice .  As a term for refined or elaborated speech the adjective appears only in Epic and Classical Sanskrit, in the Manusmriti and in the Mahabharata. The language referred to as saṃskṛta   the cultured language has by definition always been a sacred and sophisticated language, used for religious and learned discourse in ancient India, and contrasted with the languages spoken by the people,   prākṛta -   natural, artless, normal, ordinary . Varieties Classical Sanskrit  is the standard register  as laid out in the grammar of   Pāṇini , around the 4th   century BCE. [6]  Its position in the cultures of  Greater India is akin to that of  Latin and Greek in Europe and it has significantly influenced most modern languages of the Indian subcontinent, particularly in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Nepal. [7]     The pre-Classical form of Sanskrit is known as Vedic Sanskrit, with the language of the Rigveda being   the oldest and most archaic stage preserved, its oldest core dating back to as early as 1500 BCE. [8]  This qualifies Rigvedic Sanskrit as one of the oldest attestations of any Indo-Iranian language,    and one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European languages, the family which includes   English and most European languages. [9]     Vedic Sanskrit    Rigveda  (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century   Main article: Vedic Sanskrit   Sanskrit, as defined by  Pāṇini , had evolved out of the earlier Vedic form. The beginning of Vedic Sanskrit can be traced as early as 1500  – 1200 BCE (for  Rig-vedic and Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni). Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit  and Claical o Pāṇinian Sanki a epaae 'dialects'. Though they are quite similar, they differ in a number of essential points of  phonology,vocabulary, grammar  and syntax. Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, a large   collection of hymns, incantations (Samhitas), theological and religio-philosophical discussions in the Brahmanas and Upanishads. Modern linguists consider the metrical hymns of   theRigveda Samhita to be the earliest, composed by many authors over several centuries of oral tradition. The end of the Vedic period is marked by the composition of the Upanishads, which form the   concluding part of the Vedic corpus in the traditional view; however the early Sutras are Vedic, too, both in language and content. [10]   Around the mid-1st millennium BCE, Vedic Sanskrit began the transition from a first language to a second language of religion and learning. Classical Sanskrit For nearly 2,000 years, a cultural order existed that exerted influence across South Asia, Inner  Asia, Southeast Asia, and to a certain extent, East Asia. [11]   A significant form of post-Vedic Sanskrit is   found in the Sanskrit of the Hindu Epics — the Ramayana andMahabharata. The deviations   from  Pāṇini  in the epics are generally considered to be on account of interference from Prakrits, or innovations and not because they are pre-Paninean. [12]  Traditional Sanskrit scholars call such deviations ārṣa  ( ष ), meaning 'of the ṛṣi ', the traditional title for the ancient authors. In some contexts, there are also more prakritisms (borrowings from common speech) than in Classical Sanskrit proper. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit is a literary language heavily influenced by Middle Indic,    based on early Buddhist prakrit texts which subsequently assimilated to the Classical Sanskrit   standard in varying degrees. [13]   According to Tiwari (1955), there were four principal dialects of classical   Sanskrit:  paścimottarī   (Northwestern, also called Northern or Western), madhyadeśī   (lit., middle country),  pūrvi   (Eastern) and dakṣiṇī   (Southern, arose in the Classical period). The predecessors of  the first three dialects are even attested in Vedic  Brāhmaṇas , of which the first one was regarded as the purest ( Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, 7.6   ).   Contemporary usage As a spoken language Modern Sanskrit Neo-Sanskrit Region scattered villages Native speakers 14,000 self-reported (2001 census) [1]     (may not be native) Language family   revitalized Sanskrit or relexified local languages Language codes ISO 639-3   san  (generic code) The the 2001 census of India, 14,135 people reported Sanskrit as their  native language. [1]  Since the   1990s, movements to spread spoken Sanskrit have been increasing. Organisations like the  Samskrita Bharati   are conducting Speak Sanskrit workshops to popularise the language. Indian newspapers have published reports about several isolated villages, where, as a result of recent revival attempts, large parts of the population, including children, are learning Sanskrit and are even using it to some extent in everyday communication: 1. Mattur  in Karnataka [14]  2. Mohad, District: Narasinhpur, Madhya Pradesh 3. Jhiri, District: Rajgadh, Madhya Pradesh [15]     4. Kaperan, District: Bundi, Rajasthan 5. Khada, District: Banswada, Rajasthan 6. Ganoda, District: Banswada, Rajasthan [16]     7. Bawali, District: Bagapat, Uttar Pradesh 8. Shyamsundarpur, District: Kendujhar, Odisha [17]   In official use In the Republic of India Sanskrit is included in the 14 srcinal languages of the Eighth Schedule to the   Constitution. The state of  Uttarakhand in India has ruled Sanskrit as its second official language. In October 2012 noted social activist Hemant Goswami filed a writ petition in the Punjab and Haryana   High Court for declaring Sanskrit as a 'minority' language, so that it could enjoy special protection as   available to minorities under the Constitution of India. [18][19][20]    Contemporary literature and patronage See also: List of Sahitya Akademi Award winners for Sanskrit     The Sahitya Akademi has had, since 1967, an award for the best creative work written that year in   Sanskrit. In 2009, Satyavrat Shastri became the first Sanskrit author to win the Jnanpith Award,    India's highest literary award. [21]   In mass media Over 90 weeklies, fortnightlies and quarterlies are published in Sanskrit. [22]  Sudharma, a daily   newspaper in Sanskrit has been published out of  Mysore in India since the year 1970, while Sanskrit   Vartman Patram and Vishwasya Vrittantam were started in Gujarat over the last five years. [22]  Since 1974, there has been a short daily news broadcast on state-run  All India Radio. [22]  These broadcasts are also made available on the internet on AIR's website. [23][24]  Sanskrit news is broadcast on TV and on the internet as part of the DD National channel at 6:55 AM IST. [25]     As a liturgical language  As the liturgical language of  Hindus, it is used during worship in Hindu temples throughout the world.  Also, in Newar Buddhism, it is used in all the monasteries as liturgical language. It is also popular amongst the many practitioners of  yoga in the West, who find the language useful in understanding   the Yoga Sutra [ citation needed  ] .   Devimahatmya manuscript on palm-leaf, in an early Bhujimol script, Bihar  or Nepal, 11th century   Symbolic usage Main article: List of institutions which have Sanskrit phrases as their mottoes  See also: List of educational institutions which have Sanskrit phrases as their mottoes    In the Republic of India, in Nepal and Indonesia, Sanskrit phrases are widely used as mottoes for various national, educational and social organisations (much as Latin is used by some institutions in the West). For example:   Republic of India: ' सयमेव    जयते '   Satyameva Jayate   Truth alone triumphs     Nepal: ' जननी    जमभ   ूमशच    वरगादपि    रयसी  '   Janani Janmabhūmisca Svargādapi garīyasi    Mother   and motherland are greater than heaven    Aceh Province: ' िञचचत  '   Pancacita   Five Goals Many of India's and Nepal's scientific and administrative terms are named in Sanskrit. The Indian guided missile program that was commenced in 1983 by DRDO has named the five missiles (ballistic   and others) that it has developed as Prithvi,  Agni,  Akash, Nag and Trishul. India's first modern   fighter  aircraft is named HAL Tejas. 
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