Scheme Gramatica

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    AUXILIARY for the Future & Future Perfect, 1 st  person Sg. + Pl. PROMISE; RESTRICTION, COMPULSION( You shall, SHALL MODAL You shan’t) LEGAL OBLIGATION/in Contract Clauses( They shall). OFFERING HELP( Shall I?) SUBJUNCTIVE SUGGESTIONS( Shall we?) Future in the Past AUXILIARY for: the Conditional Present + Past (Main Clauses) 1 st  person Sg. + Pl. ã   if + should : tentative condition SHOULD MODAL : OBLIGATION; ADVICE; REPROACH; PROBABILITY. SUBJUNCTIVE required by: -   the verbs: - to ask, to require, to request, to suggest, to recommend, to advice, to urge, to desire, to want, to intend; etc. - to be anxious, to be eager, to be impatient, to be surprised, to be amazed, to be willing, to be determined; -   the conjunctions: -so that, in order that, for fear that, provided that, lest, why; -   the impersonal phrases: - it is imposible/ certain/ sure/ strange/ advisable/ important/ necessary/ etc.(that).   AUXILIARY for the Future Perfect, 2 nd  & 3 rd  person Sg. + Pl. WILL VOLITION; PROMISE; THREAT( I will) MODAL OFFER and REQUEST( Will you?) ã   if + will : “ If you will kindly….”   FREQUENCY. SUBJUNCTIVE required by - to be determinated (that), -  so that, for fear that. AUXILIARY for the Future in the Past, the Conditional Present & Past (Main Clauses), 2 nd  & 3 rd  person Sg. + Pl. WOULD VOLITION( I would) MODAL POLITE OFFER and REQUEST( Would You?) FREQUENCY/HABIT. SUBJUNCTIVE required by -the verb wish , -the conjuction for fear that .    NOTIONAL ( = to exist  ) Continuous Aspect of the PASSIVE VOICE TO BE AUXILIARY for the PASSIVE VOICE MODAL ORDERS/ INSTRUCTIONS A PLAN CAUSATIVE (= to get  –i.e. cause – someone do something)  NOTIONAL ( = to own, to possess  ) TO HAVE AUXILIARY for the Perfect Tenses Present Perfect - to have in the Present Past Perfect - to have in the Past Future Perfect - to have in the Future MODAL - OBLIGATION imposed by circumstances/ external authority. CAUSATIVE (= to get  –i.e. cause – someone do something)  MODALS PERSONAL versus   IMPERSONAL concerning persons  concerning situations  CAN(‘T), COULD(N‘T):- (IN)ABILITY POSSIBILITY/ IMPOSSIBILITY   ã   to be (cap)able to - for the other tenses. MAY, MIGHT PERMISSION PROBABILITY   ã   to be allowed/ permitted to - for the other tenses. MAY NOT PROHIBITION (may not, might not), MIGHT REPROACH ( might + short infinitive, PROBABILITY  might + Perfect infinitive). MUST  NECESSITY  (I must) OBLIGATION (You must)  CERTAINTY INSISTENCE (You must) MUSTN’T INTERDICTION TO HAVE TO,  NECESSITY  HAD TO, HAD TO  NEEDN’T, LACK OF OBLIGATION/ LACK OF NECESSITY DIDN’T NEED+TO INF. unnecessary action not performed  NEEDN’T+PERF.INF. action performed, though unnecessary TO BE TO - ORDERS/ INSTRUCTIONS - A PLAN
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