Science is Investigating Summary Notes

Year 10 Science is Investigating Summary Notes
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  Science Is Investigating Summary Notes Describe at least two models and theories that have been considered in science and then been modified or rejected as a result of available evidence. (1) 1.   Thomson 1897 Atomic Model: a.   Proposed a model of the atom which is known as the plum pudding model, discovered the electron  b.   Suggested it was not ordered or dividable  –   made up of protons and electrons Modification c.   Consists of a nucleus in the middle, made up of protons and neutrons d.   Surrounding the nucleus are electrons at different levels 2.   The Solar System: a.   Greek Astronomer, Ptolemy said that Earth was at the centre and all planets and the sun was orbiting it. Modification  b.   Believed that the sun is in the centre and all planets orbit it c.   The planets also orbit on their own axis Explain how the process called the scientific method works. (2) 1.   Making an observation 2.   Asking a question 3.   Forming a hypothesis 4.   Making predictions 5.   Testing hypothesis 6.   Drawing a conclusion -   Observation  –   Seeing/learning/touching/smelling/tasting -   Inference  –   Decision about what could be true after an observation is made -   Hypothesis  –   a guess to answer a question -   Aim  –   State the problem that is being attempted -   Method  –   list of instruction -   Results  –   what was seen or measured -   Conclusion  –   Answer to aim or problem -   Discussion  –   Results and observations are discussed State the four steps in a scientific investigation (experiment). (3) 1.   Plan the experiment (observation, inference, hypothesis, aim) 2.   Conduct the experiment (method) 3.   Processing the data (results and conclusion) 4.   Evaluating the experiment (discussion) Given statements about an experiment distinguish between inference, hypothesis, observation and prediction. (5) An observation is something that has occurred and one has witnessed, whereas an inference, hypothesis and prediction are All hypothesis’ are predictions, but not all predictions are hypothesis’. OBSERVATION INFERENCE HYPOTHESIS AIM APPARATUS METHOD RESULTS CONCLUSION DISCUSSION  Identify the independent and dependent variables in an experiment. (6) -   Independent  –   variable that is changed -   Dependent  –   results that you measure Identify the controlled or fixed variables in an experiment. (7) Controlled variable  –   the variable you keep the same. -   Accuracy  –   precise equipment -   Reliability: repeat, average, consistent results -   Validity: variables controlled, 1 independent variable, fair test Scientific Law: A statement describing something that happens the same way under the same conditions every time. Make a risk assessment for an experiment, which identifies any safety hazards, and decide on necessary precautions. (9)   I (Independent) COWS (change) DON’T (Dependent)  MOO (measure) CARE (Same) SOFTLY (same)

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