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Environmental models suppose that either stress or physical factors are the main evoking phenomenon in schizophrenia (Table 4.2). Table 4.2. Environmental models of schizophrenia Model of “evocative influence of complex social demands”: There are four criteria for schizophrenia-evoking stress: 1. A situation demanding action or decision 2. Complexity or ambiguity of the information supplied to deal with the task 3. Unless resolved, the situation demanding action or decision persist
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  Environmental models suppose that either stress or physical factors are the main evoking phenomenon in schizophrenia (Table 4.2).   Table 4.2. Environmental models of schizophrenia   Model of “evocative influence of complex social demands”:   There are four criteria for schizophrenia-evoking stress:  1.    A situation demanding action or decision  2.   Complexity or ambiguity of the information supplied to deal with the task  3.   Unless resolved, the situation demanding action or decision persist  4.   The subject has no “escape route” available   Most stresses of this nature will be non-pathogenic; a schizophrenia-evoking effect occurs only in conjunction with a specific genetic liability.   Non-psychosocial environmental model:    An unspecified number of varieties of physical factors will be sufficient to produce the specific cerebral lesions and dysfunction thought to be characteristic of schizophrenia, regardless of the presence or absence of a genetic susceptibility (see “Neurodevelopmental models” below).   (See: Jablensky A.: Schizophrenia: the epidemiological horizon. In: Schizophrenia, Hirsch S.R. and Weinberger D.R., eds., Blackwell Science, pp. 206-252, 1995.)   http://psych.lf1.cuni.cz/bpen/schizophrenia.htm  Social capital may work as a “buffer” modulating stress and dopamine regulation, mechanisms in the development of psychosis, 31  or through psychological mechanisms; areas of low social capital may promote development of persecutory attribution styles,  which in people with a genetic liability, may eventually manifest as a fully blown psychotic episode. Lingkungan sosial memungkinkan menjadi pemicu stres dan mengatur regulasi dopamin pada mekanisme terjadinya psikosis dalam mekanisme psikologis, area sosialisasi rendah dapat memulai perkembangan dari perubahan gaya atribusi dan pada orang dengan kelainan genetik episode psikosis penuh akan sangat mungkin terjadi http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2632272/  Triggers Triggers are things that can cause schizophrenia to develop in people who are at risk. These include:  Stress The main psychological triggers of schizophrenia are stressful life events, such as a bereavement, losing your job or home, a divorce or the end of a relationship, or physical, sexual, emotional or racial abuse. These kinds of experiences, though stressful, do not cause schizophrenia, but can trigger its development in someone already vulnerable to it. Drug abuse Drugs do not directly cause schizophrenia, but studies have shown drug misuse increases the risk of developing schizophrenia or a similar illness. Certain drugs, particularly cannabis, cocaine, LSD or amphetamines, may trigger some symptoms of schizophrenia, especially in people who are susceptible. Using amphetamines or cocaine can lead to psychosis and can cause a relapse in people recovering from an earlier episode. Th ree major studies have shown teenagers under 15 who use cannabis regularly, especially „skunk‟ and other more potent forms of the drug, are up to four times more likely to develop schizophrenia by the age of 26. http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Schizophrenia/Pages/Causes.aspx physical environment. Anak yang dulu pernah mengalami penganiayaan di rumah oleh keluarganya cenderung akan tumbuh besar memiliki gangguan mental seperti skizofreni.
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