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1. TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT: PLANNING & STRATEGIZING TRAINING  CONSISTS OF FOUR STEPS: o NEED ASSESSMENT o ESTABLISHING OBJECTIVES & MEASURES o DELIVERY OF…
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  • 1. TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT: PLANNING & STRATEGIZING TRAINING  CONSISTS OF FOUR STEPS: o NEED ASSESSMENT o ESTABLISHING OBJECTIVES & MEASURES o DELIVERY OF TRAINING o EVALUATION OF TRAINING NEED ASSESSMENT:  DONE AT THREE LEVELS: o ORGANIZATIONAL  HOW DOES THE TRAINING RELATE TO ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES?  HOW DOES THE TRAINING IMPACT DAY-TO-DAY WORKPLACE DYNAMICS?  WHAT ARE THE COSTS & EXPECTED BENEFITS OF TRAINING? o TASK  WHAT RESPONSIBILITIES RARE ASSIGNED TO THE JOB?  WHAT SKILLS OR KNOWLEDGE ARE REQUIRED FOR SUCCESSFUL PERFORMANCE?  SHOULD THE LEARNING BE ACTUAL JOB SETTING?  WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF MISTAKES?  HOW CAN THE JOB PROVIDE THE EMPLOYEE WITH DIRECT FEEDBACK?  HOW SIMILAR TO OR DIFFERENT FROM THE TRAINING NEEDS OF OTHER JOBS ARE THE NEEDS OF THIS JOB? o INDIVIDUAL
  • 2.  WHAT KNOWLEDGE / SKILLS & ABILITIES DO TRAINEES ALREADY HAVE?  WHAT ARE THE TRAINEES LEARNING STYLES?  WHAT SPECIAL NEEDS DO THE TRAINEES HAVE? OBJECTIVES:  EVERY TRAINING ACTIVITY SHOULD HAVE AN OBJECTIVE  THESE OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE QUANTIFIED DESIGN & DELIVERY:  CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING TWO CRITICAL ISSUES: o INTERFERENCE  WHEN PRIOR TRAINING, LEARNING OR ESTABLISHED HABITS ACT AS BLOCK IN THE LEARNING PROCESS  THE ATTITUDES OF THE SUPERVISORS OR PEERS MAY PRODUCE INTERFERENCE o TRANSFER  WHETHER TRAINEE CAN ACTUALLY PERFORM NEW SKILLS OR PUT THE KNOWLEDGE INTO USE  HAVE STRATEGY TO OVERCOME THE ABOVE TWO ISSUES EVALUATION:  EVALUATE THE TRAINING PROGRAM TO ASSESS WHETHER THE OBJECTIVES HAVE BEEN MET  EVALUATION DONE AT FOUR LEVELS: o REACTION  TRAINEES IMMEDIATE REACTION TO THE PROGRAM o LEARNING  HAS THE TRAINEE’S KNOWLEDGE OR SKILL GONE UP o BEHAVIOUR  ARE THE TRAINEES USING THE KNOWLEDGE OR SKILLS AT THEIR WORK PLACE o RESULTS
  • 3.  IMPACT ON BOTTOM LINE INTEGRATING TRAINING WITH PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL & COMPENSATION  PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL HIGHLIGHTS THE GAP IN CURRENT PERFORMANCE  TRAINING PROVIDED TO BRIDGE HE GAP  IF PERFORMANCE IMPROVES REWARD OR RECOGNIZE THE EMPLOYEE  IF TRAINING IS PROVIDED TO THE EMPLOYEE TO DO FUTURE DO  IF HE PERFORMS THE NEW JOB AS PER EXPECTATIONS WHICH CAN BE ASSESSED THROUGH PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL  REWARD OR RECOGNIZE THE PERFORMANCE CONCLUSIONS:  IT IS A MEANS TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH HUMAN ASSETS ARE VIABLE INVESTMENT
  • 4. ASSIGNMENT 1: VISIT AN INDUSTRY. ENQUIRE AS TO WHICH WAS THE RECENT IN-HOUSE TRAINING PROGRAM CONDUCTED IN LAST MONTH. CALCULATE THE ROI IN TERM OF RUPEES OF THE SAID TRAINING PROGRAM. ASSIGNMENT 2: WHAT ARE THE COMPETENCIES NEEDED FOR GLOBAL LEADERS IN GOVERNMENT? WHAT SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES EXIST FROM THOSE NEEDED IN PRIVATE INDUSTRY? TO WHAT CAN THESE SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES BE ATTRIBUTED? ASSIGNMENT 3: WHAT KEY FACTORS INFLUENCE THE SUCCESS OF THE TRAINING PROGRAMS? ASSIGNMENT 4: DEVELOP A TOOL TO EVALUATE THE LEARNING / TRAINING TAKING PLACE IN THE COURSE IN WHICH YOU ARE ENROLLED? ASSIGNMENT 5: EVALUATE THE STATEMENT/: ANIMALS ARE TRAINED, PEOPLE ARE DEVELOPED.
  • 5. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT & FEEDBACK INTRODUCTION:  AN O FACES FIVE STRATEGIC DECISIONS IN ESTABLISHING ITS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM, WHICH ARE AS FOLLOWS: o HOW THE SYSTEM WILL BE USED  EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT  DETERMINE REWARDS & COMPENSATION  ENHANCE MOTIVATION  FACILITATE MOTIVATION o WHO EVALUATES  SUPERVISOR / CUSTOMER / PEERS / SELF / SUBORDINATES o WHAT TO EVALUATE  TRAITS / RESULTS / BEHAVIOURS o HOW TO EVALUATE  ABSOLUTE / RELATIVE o MEANS TO EVALUATE  GRAPHIC RATING SCALE / WEIGHTED CHECKLIST / BARS / CRITICAL INCIDENT / OBJECTIVE BASED  BESIDES THE ABOVE FIVE STRATEGIC DESIGN DECISIONS, FOLLOWING CRITICAL FACTORS MUST BE CONSIDERED WHEN DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM o ENSURE THE LINK BETWEEN THE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM & TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT & COMPENSATION o HAVE CRITERIA FOR STRATEGIC INITIATIVES THAT INVOLVE LONG RANGE PLANNING & GROWTH o FLEXIBLE JOB ASSIGNMENTS & RESPONSIBILITIES
  • 6. o GROUP PERFORMANCE o DEGREE OF STANDARDIZATION OR FLEXIBILITY OF THE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS. THE O SHOULD STRIKE A BALANCE BETWEEN THE TWO  PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IS NOT MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE BUT ALSO PROVIDING FEEDBACK TO THE EMPLOYEES ON THE PROCESS. THE FOLLOWING ARE THE CRITICAL GUIDELINES WITH RESPECT TO FEEDBACK PROCESS:: o SHOULD BE SPECIFIC o SHOULD BE BASED ON FACTS o PROVIDED AS SOON AS POSSIBLE o PERFORMANCE MEASURES SHOULD BE BASED ON CLEAR MEASURABLE GOALS o THE PROCESS SHOULD INVOLVE A DIALOGUE BETWEEN THE EMPLOYEE & THE SENIOR  THERE IS PROBABLY NO IDEAL MODEL FOR A PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. AN EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IS STRATEGIC, DESIGNED WITH THE NEEDS OF MANY CONSTITUENTS & PURPOSES BALANCED WITH O’ S STRATEGY. THE SYSTEM ARE AS VARIED AS THE O IN WHICH THEY ARE LOCATED, BUT ALL DISPLAY INNOVATION & INSIGHT TOWARD CREATIVITY SUPPORTING THE O ‘S STRATEGIES STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM:  INVOLVE MANAGERS IN THE DESIGN OF THE SYSTEM  HOLD MANAGERS ACCOUNTABLE FOR THE PERFORMANCE & DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR SUBORDINATES  SET CLEAR EXPECTATIONS FOR PERFORMANCE  SET SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES FOR THE SYSTEM  TIE PERFORMANCE MEASURE TO REWARDS
  • 7.  GAIN COMMITMENT FROM SENIOR MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT 1 IN COMPETING ENVIRONMENT, SHOULD PA BE USED FOR DEVELOPMENT OF EMPLOYEES OR FOR ASSESSING EMPLOYEE’S PERFORMANCE? JUSTIFY YOUR ANSWER WITH LOGIC. ASSIGNMENT 2: DEFINE POTENTIAL APPRAISAL. VISIT AN INDUSTRY, & CHECK HOW THEY DO POTENTIAL APPRAISAL? ASSIGNMENT 3: DEFINE 360 DEGREE APPRAISAL. VISIT AN INDUSTRY & FIND OUT HOW DO THEY CONDUCT IT? ASSIGNMENT 4: COMPARE HOW APPRAISAL IS DONE IN AN ENGINEERING & IT INDUSTRY? ASSIGNMENT 5: IF PERFORMANCE IS BASED ON GOAL SETTING; DO WE NEED TO APPRAISE THE PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEE? ASSIGNMENT 6 WHAT WILL BE YOUR STRATEGY TO DEAL WITH LIMITATIONS OF APPRAISAL?
  • 8. COMPENSATION INTRODUCTION:  IT IMPACTS AN EMPLOYER’S ABILITY TO ATTRACT APPLICANTS, RETAIN EMPLOYEES, & ENSURE OPTIMAL LEVELS OF PERFORMANCE  IT IS A KEY ECONOMIC ISSUE. FOR IT FORMS A CHUNK OF OPERATING EXPENSES  A CRITICAL BALANCING ACT MUST OCCUR TO ENSURE THAT COMPENSATION ATTRACTS, MOTIVATES, & RETAINS EMPLOYEES, AT THE SAME TIME, COMPENSATION SHOULD ALLOW THE O TO MAINTAIN A COST STRUCTURE THAT ENABLES IT TO COMPETE EFFECTIVELY & EFFICIENTLY IN ITS MARKETS  IT CONSISTS OF THREE SEPARATE COMPONENTS: o BASIC SALARY o INCENTIVE o INDIRECT PAYMENT  WHILE DESIGNING THE OVERALL COMPENSATION SYSTEM, AN O NEEDS TO BE CONCERNED WITH PERCEIVED EQUITY OR FAIRNESS OF THE SYSTEM FOR EMPLOYEES  WHEN INDIVIDUALS PERCEIVE THAT THEY ARE BEING TREATED INEQUITABLY RELATIVE TO THEIR PEERS, THEY USUALLY TRY TO ESTABLISH EQUITY BY DEMANDING ADDITIONAL COMPENSATION; OR DECREASE THEIR INPUTS  THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF EQUITY: o INTERNAL o EXTERNAL o INDIVIDUAL  THESE PERCEPTIONS OF EQUITY DIRECTLY IMPACT MOTIVATION, COMMITMENT, & PERFORMANCE ON THE JOB
  • 9.  EMPLOYEE ASSESSMENTS OF EQUITY ARE IN FACT PERCEPTIONS. THEY MAY BE BASED IN PART, ON INCOMPLETE OR INACCURATE INFORMATION. FEW EMPLOYEES REALLY KNOW THE EXTENT OF THEIR CO-WORKERS’ INPUTS UNLESS THEY ARE TOGETHER THROUGHOUT THE WORKDAY. THE CONFIDENTIALITY OF MANY COMPENSATION PROGRAMS CAN ALSO MAKE IT DIFFICULT FOR EMPLOYEES TO OBTAIN ACCURATE INFORMATION ON CO-WORKER COMPENSATION. ALTHOUGH COMPENSATION IS NOT THE ONLY WORK-RELATED OUTCOME EMPLOYEES RECEIVE, IT OFTEN IS THE BASIS BY WHICH EMPLOYEES CONCLUDE THAT THEY ARE BEING TREATED APPROPRIATELY INTERNAL EQUITY:  IT IS PERCEIVED FAIRNESS OF PAY DIFFERENTIALS AMONG DIFFERENT JOBS WITHIN AN O.  EMPLOYERS CAN ESTABLISH INTERNAL EQUITY BY JOB EVALUATION.  THERE ARE FOUR TECHNIQUES TO EVALUATE JOB: o RANKING o CLASSIFICATION o FACTOR COMPARISON o POINT SYSTEM  REGARDLESS OF THE METHOD CHOSEN, EMPLOYEES MUST UNDERSTAND & ACCEPT THE SYSTEM TO ENSURE OPTIMAL MOTIVATION, COMMITMENT & PERFORMANCE EXTERNAL EQUITY:  IT REFERS TO EMPLOYEE’S PERCEPTION OF THE FAIRNESS OF THEIR COMPENSATION RELATIVE TO THOSE OUTSIDE THE O  DONE BY DOING SALARY SURVEY  AFTER THE SURVEY THE O HAS TO DETERMINE ITS PAY STRATEGY RELATIVE TO THE MARKET. THERE ARE THREE STRATEGIES FROM WHICH THE EMPLOYER CAN CHOOSE
  • 10. o LEAD o LAG o MARKET RATE INDIVIDUAL EQUITY:  IT CONSIDERS EMPLOYEE PERCEPTIONS OF PAY DIFFERENTIALS AMONG INDIVIDUALS WHO HOLD IDENTICAL JOBS IN THE SAME O  THE PAY DIFFERENTIALS EXISTS ON ACCOUNT OF o SENIORITY o SKILL-BASED PAY o MERIT PAY. IT DEPENDS UPON THE PERFORMANCE CONCLUSIONS:  THE INDIVIDUAL SENSES INEQUITY WHEN PERCEIVING THAT THE BELOW GIVEN RATIOS ARE NOT EQUAL.  OUTCOMES / REWARDS [SELF] DIVIDED BY INPUTS / CONTRIBUTIONS [SELF] IS EQUAL OUTCOMES / REWARDS [OTHERS] DIVIDED INPUTS / CONTRIBUTIONS [OTHERS]  OS WISHING TO BE MORE INNOVATIVE MAY NEED TO ALTER THEIR COMPENSATION SYSTEM TO PROMOTE MORE INTRAPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR THAT ENCOURAGES EMPLOYEES TO ACT AS RISK TAKING ENTREPRENEURS  OS TAKING A STRATEGIC APPROACH TO COMPENSATION REALIZE THE NEED FOR CREATIVITY TO MEET STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES  ALSO WITHIN A GIVEN O DIFFERENT COMPENSATION PROGRAMS MAY BE NEEDED FOR DIFFERENT DIVISIONS, DEPARTMENTS, OR GROUP OF EMPLOYEES  COMPENSATION SYSTEMS MUST GROW & EVOLVE IN THE SAME MANNER AS THE O TO ENSURE THAT WHAT IS ACTUALLY BEING REWARDED IS CONSISTENT WITH O’S STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES  THE LINK BETWEEN STRATEGY & COMPENSATION IS ESSENTIAL FOR ENSURING OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE
  • 11. ASSIGNMENT 1 VISIT ANY NEW INDUSTRY, WHICH HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED FOR THE FIRST TIME LAST YEAR IN PUNE. FIND OUT HOW DID THEY FIX THE BASIC WAGES FOR THE VARIOUS POSITIONS IN THE ORGANIZATION? HOW DID THEY ESTABLISH EQUITY IN COMPENSATION? ASSIGNMENT 2 IS PERFORMANCE BASED PAY EFFECTIVE? WHY OR WHY NOT? HOW CAN PERFORMANCE BASED PAY SYSTEMS BE BETTER DEIGNED TO ENSURE OPTIMAL RESULTS. ASSIGNMENT 3: WHAT ARE THE CRITICAL FACTORS IN DESIGNING A TEAM BASED COMPENSATION SYSTEM? ASSIGNMENT 4: WHAT FACTORS SHOULD INFLUENCE EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION? ASSIGNMENT 5: EXPLAIN HAY SYSTEM OF JOB EVALUATION? ASSIGNMENT 6: EXPLAIN POINT SYSTEM JOB EVALUATION METHOD.
  • 12. LABOUR RELATIONS: INTRODUCTION:  THE NATURE OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EMPLOYER & THE EMPLOYEE CAN HAVE A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON MORALE, MOTIVATION, & PRODUCTIVITY  IF THE EMPLOYEES FEEL THAT THE TERMS & CONDITIONS OF THEIR EMPLOYMENT ARE LESS ADVANTAGEOUS WILL NOT BE COMMITTED TO PERFORM & TO REMAIN WITH THE EMPLOYER  CONSEQUENTLY HOW O MANAGE THE DAY TO DAY ASPECTS OF THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP CAN BE A KEY VARIABLE AFFECTING THEIR ABILITY TO ACHIEVE STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES  WHEN WORKERS GET UNIONISED, IT CREATES SPECIAL CHALLENGES FOR HR MANAGEMENT. THE PAYROLL EXPENSES & THE WORK PROCESSES MAY CONTRIBUTE TO RETARD EFFICIENCY IN OPERATIONS WHY EMPLOYEES UNIONISE:  PERCEIVED BENEFITS. THESE BENEFITS COULD BE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL & OR POLITICAL  POWER IN UNITY COLLECTIVE BARGAINING  MANAGEMENT & UNION COME TOGETHER TO NEGOTIATE THROUGH COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AN AGREEMENT COVERING TERMS & CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT  NEGOTIATION SHOULD TAKE PLACE IN GOOD FAITH  THE OUTCOME OF NEGOTIATION SHOULD BE WIN-WIN  WHEN NEGOTIATION FAILS, THE MANAGEMENT CAN DECLARE A LOCK OUT, & THE UNION CAN DECLARE A STRIKE. THAT IS WHY THE PROCESS OF NEGOTIATION SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED TO COME TO A STALEMATE
  • 13.  NEGOTIATION SHOULD BE BASED ON GIVE & TAKE PRINCIPLES UNIONS TODAY:  UNIONS MUST DEVELOP PARTNERSHIP WITH EMPLOYERS & SEEK WIN-WIN OUTCOMES  COLLECTIVE BARGAINING SHOULD STRENGTHEN BOTH THE UNION’S POSITION & EMPLOYEE’S RIGHT & ENHANCE THE PERFORMANCE OF THE O  UNIONS SHOULD REALIZE THAT THE JOBS OF TODAY & THOSE OF FUTURE ARE QUITE DIFFERENT FROM THE JOBS OF PAST  JOBS ARE BECOMING MORE COMPLEX, MULTIFACETED IN NATURE. WORK IS DONE IN TEAMS.  WORK INDEPENDENTLY WITH NO SUPERVISION  PARTICIPATION & INVOLVEMENT ARE NOT VOLUNTARY.  UNIONS PARTNER WITH EMPLOYERS IN CREATING BENEFICIAL CHANGE, RATHER THAN INHIBITING CHANGE  AS UNIONS DECLINE IN NUMBER & STATURE, WORKERS BECOME LESS POWERFUL. THE WORKERS INTEREST CAN BE ENHANCED THROUGH LEGISLATION OR MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES  UNION LEADERS WILL HAVE TO RETHINK THEIR ROLES & ADOPT COLLECTIVE BARGAINING STRATEGIES THAT ALLOW BOTH EMPLOYERS & EMPLOYEES TO BENEFIT. WILL HAVE TO LEARN MANAGEMENT SKILLS IN UNDERSTANDING THE BUSINESS, STRATEGIC ISSUES, & THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH THE BUSINESS IS DONE  UNIONS CANNOT GUARANTEE JOB SECURITY BUT CAN GUARANTEE EMPLOYABILITY BY TRAINING EMPLOYEES TO BE MULTI-SKILLED
  • 14. NEW STRATEGIES FOR UNION:  GOALS: o EMPLOYMENT SECURITY o HIGHER WAGES o MAKE UNIONS STRONGER  PAST STRATEGIES: o JOB CLASSIFICATION o GRIEVANCE HANDLING o COLLECTIVE BARGAINING o CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION  FUTURE STRATEGIES: o PARTICIPATE IN DEVELOPING  NEW WORK SYSTEM  EDUCATION & TRAINING  TECHNOLOGY  NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT o SEEK TO UPGRADE WORKER SKILLS o MOBILIZE & ENGAGE THE WORKFORCE FOR GREATER CONTROL OVER PRODUCTION DECISIONS o LEVERAGE THE USE OF CAPITAL INVESTMENT & PENSION FUNDS ASSIGNMENT 1: VISIT ANY MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY, WHICH RECENTLY SIGNED A SETTLEMENT WITH THEIR UNION. HOW MUCH RISE DID THE MANAGEMENT GIVE IN TERMS OF MONEY & BENEFITS. DID THE MANAGEMENT SUBMIT ITS CHARTER OF DEMANDS TO THE UNION? IF SO HOW MUCH DEMANDS OF THE MANAGEMENT WAS SETTLED ASSIGNMENT 2
  • 15. WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE OUTCOMES OF FAILURE TO REACH CONSENSUS ON COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENT? ASSIGNMENT 3: WITH UNIONISATION ON THE DOWNTURN, WHY SHOULD AN ORGANIZATION BE CONCERNED ABOUT LABOUR RELATIONS? ASSIGNMENT 4: COMMENT: OUTSOURCING HAS MADE THE UNION EFFECTIVE TODAY? ASSIGNMENT 5: VISIT A BPO / IT INDUSTRY & FIND OUT HOW HAVE THEY AVOIDED FORMATION OF THE UNION? ‘
  • 16. EMPLOYEE SEPARATION INTRODUCTION:  THE PRESSURE TO REMAIN COMPETITIVE & EFFICIENT, COUPLED WITH THE FACT THAT EMPLOYEES ARE LESS COMMITTED TO INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYERS THAN IN PAST MAKES THE PROCESS OF EMPLOYEE SEPARATION A KEY STRATEGIC ISSUE FOR O  HR STRATEGY INVOLVES MANAGING THE PROCESS BY WHICH EMPLOYEES LEAVE THE O, REGARDLESS OF DEPARTURE  O CAN MANAGE THIS SEPARATION PROCESS TO ENSURE THAT TRANSITIONS ARE SMOOTH FOR BOTH EMPLOYER & EMPLOYEES, THE OPERATIONS ARE NOT DISRUPTED, & THAT PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIP IS NOT DISTURBED  SEPARATION TAKES PLACE IN ONE OF THE WAYS: o FORCED o VOLUNTARY o RETIREMENT  FORCED REDUCTION: o DONE FOR:  INEFFICIENCY  LACK OF ADAPTABILITY  WEAKENED COMPETITION POSITION WITHIN THE INDUSTRY o PAYROLL EXPENSE IS ONE OF THE LARGEST EXPENSES o EFFICIENCY IS SOUGHT BY REDUCING LABOUR FORCE, & BY REDESIGNING THE WORK PROCESS o EFFECTIVE HR PLANNING CAN REDUCE THE NEED FOR ANY LARGE SCALE REDUCTION IN WORK FORCE o ANOTHER METHOD IS BY TYING COMPENSATION TO O’S PERFORMANCE
  • 17. o STAFFING THE O AT LESS THAN 100% & MAKING UP THE DIFFERENCE WITH TEMPORARY EMPLOYEES OR BY WAY OF OVERTIME o O NEEDS TO DEVELOP APPROPRIATE STRATEGY FOR MANAGING THE SURVIVORS, FOR THEY WILL FEEL LESS SECURE ABOUT THE JOBS & WILL BE ASKED TO PERFORM MORE WORK WITHOUT A CORRESPONDING INCREASE IN COMPENSATION o HAVE STRONG EVIDENCE. DOCUMENT THE SAME. COMMUNICATE THE INFORMATION ABOUT PERFORMANCE AT REGULAR INTERVAL TO THE EMPLOYEE. OTHERWISE ONE LANDS UP WITH COURT COST, BAD PUBLICITY, & DISSENSION AMONG THE RANKS OF ITS EMPLOYEE  VOLUNTARY: o SUCH SEPARATIONS CAUSE DISRUPTIONS IN OPERATIONS, WORK TEAM DYNAMICS & UNIT PERFORMANCE o IT CREATES COSTS FOR THE O o IT HAS BOTH ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES o PERFORMANCE – REPLACEABILITY STRATEGY IS THE BEST TOOL TO MANAGE TURNOVER STRATEGICALLY  REPLACEABILITY: DIFFICULTY: PERFORMANCE HIGH: • STRATEGY TO BE ADOPTED: o RETAIN o INVEST o DEVELOP BACKUPS  REPLACEABILITY EASY: PERFORMANCE HIGH: • STRATEGY TO BE ADOPTED: o RETAIN o INVEST
  • 18.  REPLACEABILITY DIFFICULTY: PERFORMANCE AVERAGE: • STRATEGY TO BE ADOPTED: o RETAIN o PROVIDE PERFORMANCE INCENTIVE o DEVELOP BACKUP  REPLACEABILITY EASY: PERFORMANCE: AVERAGE • STRATEGY TO BE ADOPTED: o RETAIN o PROVIDE PERFORMANCE INCENTIVES  REPLACEABILITY DIFFICULTY: PERFORMANCE LOW: • STRATEGY TO BE ADOPTED: o IMPROVE PERFORMANCE o TERMINATE o DEVELOP BACKUP  REPLACEABILITY EASY: PERFORMANCE POOR • IMPROVE PERFORMANCE • TERMINATE RETIREMENT: o RETIREES HAVE WEALTH OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE INDUSTRY, MARKETPLACE, HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE O & EXPERIENCE WITH O’AL PROCESSES o IF KNOWLEDGE & EXPERIENCE IS IMPORTANT, THEN THE O MUST CAPITALIZE ON THEM BY RETAINING THEM AS CONSULTANT o WHEREVER THE EMPLOYEES DO NOT ADD VALUE TO THE O, THEN VRS CAN BE THOUGH OF CONCLUSION:  STRATEGICALLY MANAGING EMPLOYEE SEPARATION ENTAILS DETERMINING THE VALUE OF HUMAN ASSETS FROM INVESTMENT
  • 19. PERSPECTIVE & CONSIDERING THE COSTS OF DISCARDING THE ASSETS ASSIGNMENT 1 VISIT AN ORGANIZATION. FIND OUT WHICH KEY INDIVIDUAL SUBMITTED HIS RESIGNATION. HOW DID THE MANAGEMENT RETAIN HIM? ASSIGNMENT 2: DISCUSS THE WAYS AN ORGANIZATION MIGHT ATTEMPT TO RETAIN ITS MOST VALUED EMPLOYEES? ASSIGNMENT 3 HOW DOES THE ORGANIZATION MAKE VRS ATTRACTIVE AS A STRATEGY FOR DOWNSIZING?
  • 20. INTERNATIONAL HRM INTRODUCTION:  TREMENDOUS OPPORTUNITIES EXIST TO MARKET GOODS / SERVICES GLOBALLY  INCREASING NUMBER OF ORGANIZATIONS ARE DEVELOPING STRATEGIES TO EXPAND INTERNATIONALLY  THESE STRATEGIC OPPORTUNITIES ARE RESULTING IN EMPLOYERS’ SENDING AN INCREASING NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ABROAD TO START UP, MANAGE, & DEVELOP THEIR INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS  WORKFORCE ARE BECOMING MORE CULTURALLY DIVERSE  HRM IS CRITICAL TO THE SUCCESS OF ANY INTERNATIONAL ENDEAVOUR HOW INTERNATIONAL HRM DIFFERS FROM DOMESTIC HRM  ADDRESSES BROADER RANGE OF FUNCTIONAL AREAS LIKE: • CLARIFYING TAXATION ISSUES • COORDINATING FOREIGN CURRENCIES / EXCHANGE RATES • COMPENSATION PLANS • WORKING DIRECTLY WITH FAMILIES OF EMPLOYEES  MORE INVOLVEMENT IN THE EMPLOYEES PERSONAL LIFE LIKE: • ASSISTING IN ACQUIRING HOUSE IN HOST COUNTRY • SELLING / LEASING DOMESTIC ACCOMMODATIONS • LOCATING RECREATIONAL & CULTURAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMPLOYEE & HIS FAMILY • ARRANGING & PAYING FOR SCHOOL FOR THE EMPLOYEE’S CHILDREN • LOCATING & SECURING DOMESTIC HELP FOR THE EMPLOYEE
  • 21.  SETTING DIFFERENT HRM SYSTEM FOR DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS  DEAL WITH MORE COMPLEX EXTERNAL CONSTITUENCIES LIKE: • DEALING WITH FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS / POLITICAL / RELIGIOUS GROUPS  OFTEN INVOLVES HEIGHTENED EXPOSURE TO RISKS LIKE: • HEALTH • SAFETY OF THE EMPLOYEE & FAMILY • LEGAL ISSUES IN HOST COUNTRY • POSSIBLE TERRORISM DECISION TO EXPAND INTERNATIONALLY  FIRST IS DETERMINING THE APPROPRIATE STRATEGY FOR INVOLVEMENT IN THE HOST COUNTRY. FOR EXAMPLE THE ORGANIZATION MAY DECIDE TO SIMPLY EXPORT ITS GOOD TO THE FOREIGN COUNTRY  IF THE GROWTH IS THERE, THE ORGANIZATION MIGHT ALSO DECIDE TO SUBCONTRACT / LICENSE CERTAIN GOODS / SERVICES TO A FOREIGN PARTNER  ON A SLIGHTLY MORE INVOLVED SCALE, A JOINT VENTURE MIGHT BE UNDERTAKEN ABROAD WITH A FOREIGN PARTNER  FINALLY THE ORGANIZATION COULD DECIDE TO ESTABLISH A SIGNIFICANT PRESENCE ABROAD BY SETTING UP OPERATIONS IN THE FORM OF A FOREIGN BRANCH OFFICE / SUBSIDIARY STRATEGIC HR ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL ASSIGNMENTS:  FOLLOWING ARE THE STEPS: • ESTABLISH THE PURPOSE OF ASSIGNMENT. BOTH FROM O & INDIVIDUAL’S POINT OF VIEW • SELECT THE APPROPRIATE PERSON FOR THE ASSIGNMENT. THE INDIVIDUAL SHOULD HAVE TECHNICAL ABILITIES,
  • 22. TOLERANCE OF AMBIGUITY, COMMUNICATION SKILLS, PATIENCE, & OPENNESS TO DIFFERENCES IN OTHERS, & WILLINGNESS TO LEARN • ASSESS THE ADAPTABILITY TO HOST CULTURE OF BOTH EMPLOYEE & HIS FAMILY MEMBERS. INDIVIDUALS & FAMILY MEMBERS MUST BE SCREENED TO DETERMINE T
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