Simple Past Tense

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  Simple Past Tense [VERB+ed] Simple Past Tense is used: a) To show something that happened in the past : Examples: 1) He broke  his leg yesterday 2) I visited  India last year. 3) He gave  me a dollar on that day. b) To express an action wholly completed in the past : Examples: 1) They sang  and danced  all night. 2) He looked here and there and tried  to escape. 3) I gave  him some money and he bought  a pen with it. c) The Past Tense is used to speak politely : Examples: 1) Could  you please do this for me? 2) Did  you wish to speak to me? Past Continuous Tense [was/were + present participle] Past Continuous Tense shows an action which was going on at a certain time in the past: Examples: 1) I was reading a book when he came. 2) He was catching fish when it began to rain. 3) He was sleeping when I went to his house. when is most often followed by the verb tense simple past,  whereas while is usually followed by Past Continuous. While expresses the idea of during that time. For example: ã  I was studying when she called . ã   While I was studying , she called. Past Perfect Tense [had + past participle] Past Perfect Tense states that an action was completed at a certain point of time in the past . Examples: 1) I knew that it had rained. 2) When I reached home, he had already gone This tense refers to two periods of time , one action being completed before the other takes place. The examples above show the two actions: First Action Completed Second Action took Place  1) It had rained. I knew. 2) He had already gone. When I reached home. The Past Perfect Tense is often used in Reported Speech Direct Speech Reported or Indirect Speech  1) I have seen her. He said that he had seen her. 2) I have eaten it. He said that he had eaten it.  Influence of Media on Children Television’s substantial impact on all growing children began in the 1950s with the proliferation of TV sets. Conservative estimated that preschool children watch nearly 3.5 hours of TV per day and this average continues through age 18. In the 21st century, however, television viewing was becoming somewhat diminished because of increased use of computer games and the Internet, and also because children now spent more time in child-care, school, and after-school-care programs. Television influences children in direct proportion to both time spent viewing and the overall effect of what was viewed. Certainly, eating habits, family interactions, and use of leisure time were considerably influenced by television. Commercials took up 12 to 14 minutes of every hour of television, and in that time, advertisers tried to influence viewers with all types of consumerism. Schools and parents were far behind advertisers in finding the most effective ways of using media. Children were especially susceptible to electronic media, and televised advertising had a huge effect. Heavy viewers were drawn to the advertised products, including unhealthy food products, and they tend to eat more snack foods and be overweight. Social interactions were also affected. Heavy viewers held more traditional sex-role attitudes, behaved more aggressively, were less socially competent, and performed more poorly in school compared to light or non viewers. Not all TV advertising was negative, of course. There had been efforts through TV to modify behaviors such as smoking, drunken driving, and poor nutritional habits. How children were affected by both positive and negative advertisements also depend on such factors as parent  – child interactions, how children were disciplined, and even to some degree on social  – economic factors.  Advertising was not the only way in which television influences viewers. Two additional, concerned about the effects of television were the amount of violence, in both commercials and programs, and the amount of time children’s television watching took away from more creative and intellectual pursuits. Research on the impact of television viewing on academic achievement indicated that such influence was complex in nature. Television viewing took time away from important social interactions, such as conversation, storytelling, imaginative play, and for primary-school children, the leisure reading that promoted literacy. We must remember, however, that the amount of viewing, the kind of programs watched, IQ, and socioeconomic status were all factors that affect children’s attitude and achievement.
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