Sivakumar Mechanical Department

Sivakumar Mechanical Department
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  Production and Processing of Cashew Nut Shell and Feasibility of CNSL oil as Bio fuel inCompression Ignition Engine – a e!iew Si!a umar S #$ %&en atachalam   ' % Nedunche(hian N ' % a)endiran * + 1 RVS College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India 2 Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode, Tamilnadu, India 3 Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India !STRCTCashe nut shell li#uid $C%S&' is a by(product obtained from cashe $  Anacardium Occidentale L. ' nut processing industries) C%S& mainly consists of nacardic acid, Cardaol and Cardanol) The constituentcomposition percentage *aries ith different e+traction process and many parameters and obtained C%S& oil isgraded ith type of processing of ra cashe nut) The constituents of C%S& ha*e different properties e*enthough they belong to the phenolic group) In this article Cardanol, hich is the main constituent of C%S& oilhas been selected for the study of its physical and chemical properties) Cashe obtained from anruti$Tamilnadu' has been selected for the testing, hich belongs to the *ariety of Vengurla, one of the mostcommon *arieties gro n in India) This paper contains the information collected from re*ie of published papers for the production and processing, e+traction methods, physical and chemical properties and uses of C%S& oil) It as obser*ed that the physical and chemical properties of C%S& oil-s constituents ha*e higher calorific *alue, lo ash content and limited content of ater are *ery closer to the con*entional petroleum product, especially .iesel fuel) /ith further distillation of e+tracted C%S& oil, the results sho s that againimpro*ement in C%S& oils properties for the feasibility of usage as a biofuel in blend ith diesel) In addition tothat, some other properties li0e *iscosity, density, flash point, fire point and some of pro+imate and ultimateanalysis also impro*es ith second distillation) This also sho s that, the cardanol can be used as a blend along ith diesel) urther or0 can be out carried out for the usage of cardanol as alternati*e fuel)ey /ords Cashe , %ut, C%S& oil, Cardanol oil, properties of C%S& oil, #, Introduction The cashe nut tree,  Anacardium Occidentale L.  belongs to the family nacardiaceae hich contains a number of ornamental and fruit trees li0e sumach $  Rhus ', pistachio $  Pistacia ', mango $  Mangufera ' and frican plum$ Sclerocarya birrea ') Cashe has a nati*e of north east !ra4il 516 ith a name of 7aca8ou9) ortuguese tra*elerstoo0 the cashe tree to colonies in India during si+teenth century as a means of controlling coastal erosion) It as spread ithin these countries ith the aid of elephants that ate the bright cashe fruit along ith theattached nut) The nut as too hard to digest and as later e+pelled ith the droppings) It as not until thenineteenth century that plantations ere de*eloped) /orld ide culti*ation of cashe has been presented in the figure 1 and hich sho s the gro ing climaticregions bet een 2: ;% and S latitude and India has the largest area har*ested under the ra cashe nuts in the orld 526) India is one of the largest producer of cashe ith an a*erage total area of <,=<,;;; ha of land, producing =,=:,;;; tons of ra cashe nuts ith an a*erage producti*ity of <=; 0g per hectare 536) The ma8or cashe nut producing states in India are >aharashtra, erala, ndhra radesh, ?rissa, arnata0a, Tamil %adu,@oa and /est !engal in the order of production range) The producti*ity of cashe among the orld is presented in the table 1 -Source. ? Stat data, 2;12' 5A6) rocessing of both import and e+port cashe nut,0ernel and byproduct cashe nut shell li#uid from ra cashe is sho n in table 2 ith around 3B processing1  units including 1<:; small scale cottage industries spread o*er India) The main importing countries of cashe  products from India are DS, DE, %etherlands, etc,) $Source .@CIS, ol0ata' [5]. ig)1 /orld ide culti*ation of cashe Table 1 /orld ide roducti*ity of cashe  Year Cashew Kernel ExportC N S L ExportRaw nut importQuantity (in MT)Value (in Rs)Quantity (in MT)Value (in Rs)Quantity (in MT)Value (in Rs) 2;;:(2;;=11A1A32:1A<==A;:B;:=:A;;21=2:2;;=(2;;B11<:A;2A::1:::<2;:2=;A1<11=22;;B(2;;<11A3A;22<<;B<1311B=;:B;1BA=<;2;;<(2;;1;:222<<A;;2=;==;:<:;2=32A12;;(2;1;1;<12;2;:<2BA<2A12B:2<A3;3B3:Table) 2) Import and e+port of Cashe and its products in India Sources. httpFFdccd)go*)inFstat1a)htmGR?CESSI%@ $accessed  Han 2;1A' ', Plantation and Culti!ation. Cashe trees are easy to plantation and multiply by their seeds that can begin to gro $germinate' after thehar*est of ithin 1 to 3 years) Cashe trees can be easily culti*ated ith little care) ar*esting and so ing arealso easiest process) .irect seeding is feasible, hen the rainfall e+ceeds <;;(12;; mm in a*erage, during theso ing period) Cashe can ithstand high temperatures, a mean of 2: ; C and is regarded as optimal) &imitingfactors for the cashe nuts are hea*y rain hich ill damage the flo ering and frost and e+treme cold for longtime, hich ill reduce the nut yield) lanting distances of < + : m is recommended bet een each tree) @ro th2 CountryCashew Production'/#/0 of 1orld2otal Vietnam1,1:,=;; metric tonnes 32)33J India=13,;;; metric tonnes  1B);J  %igeria:A,;;; metric tonnes  1=):=J Cote dKLI*oire3B;,;;; metric tonnes  1;)31J !ra4il1BA,3;; metric tonnes  A)<=J  and production of cashe trees can be enhanced by establishing colonel orchards, and impro*ing fertili4ing andirrigation practices) In the case of fertili4ation, nitrogen and phosphate are best suitable) ',#, 2ree. Cashe tree is a fast gro ing, hardy and drought resistant multipurpose tree that can be culti*ated in manytropical climatic conditions) Trees are also suitable for use in reforestation in barren, slash and burned farmland,degraded land and coastal sandy land) /asteland ith deep soils can be reclaimed ith cashe trees, hosedeep roots bring nutrients to the surface) In India, cashe trees ere often used as a reforestation and to fi+dunes $a hill or ridge of sand piled up by the ind') It can gro up to a height of 2; m ith a diameter of 1 munder good gro ing conditions) !ut under poor climatic conditions, gro th ill be stagnates $not flo ing in astream') ealthy trees ha*e o*al shaped lea*es ith a length of 1; M 2; cm and ha*e a ide of 1; cm, hich islight green or light reddish hile in the gro ing stage and ill be in dar0 green hen in mature condition) If trees are not bro sed, branches touch the soil and may form deep root)The cashe tree gum that has been proposed as an a#ueous t o phase e+tract and substitute for fractionedde+tran 5=6, the tree bar0 and lea*es that ha*e been used as an ancient remedy for toothache and malaria)Cashe tree ood can be used as termite resistant and useful for boat building 5B6) e ne*ertheless confirmsthat it produces a good charcoal) ',', Flowering% Fruit and Nut. lo ering starts on the ne branches about 3 months after the rainy season ends)  fruit fully gro s in t o tothree months normally at the end of the dry season) igh temperature leads to earlier flo ering) The nutde*elops initially and the apple de*elops and enlarges only t o ee0s before fruit fall) The fruit as hardlyedible because of its 7unripe9 taste, but a 8uice can be made from it and the nuts can be eatable if coo0ed)!esides that the fruit apple $pseudo fruit' is also used to ma0e 8elly, 8am, ine and syrup 5<6 ( 51;6, the pseudofruit aste that has been proposed as a feedstoc0 for protein enriched animal feed or as a high fructose source5116) Cashe apple could be used for the production of bio(fuel and used for the production of ethanol $.r)bdul Salam, .ept) of gronomy, erala griculture Dni*ersity, Vellayani, erala') Cashe apple containsmore than : times *itamin C than an orange and contains more calcium, iron and *itamin !1 than other fruitssuch as citrus and bananas) %ut is on the outside of the fruit, hich is about 3; mm long N 22 mm ide N 1B mm thic0) It is co*ered ithreddish bro n s0in 0no n as testa and a shell) The 0ernel hich fits tightly into the shell has a mean si4e of about 2A mm long N 1= mm ide N 12 mm thic0, hich indicates fairly uniform shell thic0ness of about 3 mm5126) !et een the shell and 0ernel a honeycomb structure containing dar0 colored, high *iscous phenolicmaterial 0no n as Cashe %ut Shell &i#uid ?il) The nut consists of 0ernel 2;(2:J, 0ernel li#uid 2;(3;J, testa3J and other being the shell by the eight of nut) ',+, Processing of Cashew Nut. Cashe nut to be processed for the reco*ery of edible meat portion of 0ernel from ra nut is done by either manual or mechanical mean) In India processing of cashe nut is mostly done by manual and the or0 forceconsists mainly of omen) rocessing consists of moisture conditioning, roasting, shelling, drying, peelinggrading and pac0ing) In the moisture conditioning process, nut-s moisture content is to be maintained in therange of 1: to 2:J) >oisture conditioned nut is bring to the roasting process) There are different 0inds of  processing methods depending on *ariety of ra material, location, technological mechani4ation, and3  a*ailability of secured energy supply 536) The important processing methods are .rum roasting, ?il bathroasting and Steam roasting) In anruti $Tamilnadu', a simple and cheapest method for processing of Cashe %uts is to e+pose the nuts tothe intense of sun light) /ell dried nuts are then hand shelled to remo*e 0ernel from cashe nut) Shelled 0ernelsha*e to be dried to reduce moisture and loosen the adhering testa) In general, drying is done ith a drier in hich 0ernels are heated indirectly by flue gases) .ried 0ernels are easy to peel off the seed coat from it bymanually) eeled off nuts are graded as per their #uality either they hole, bro0en, butts, splits, pieces and small pieces $ hole 0ernel ith grade /1<; and /21; ha*e AA; to A=; 0ernel per 0g' and as per #uantity number of 0ernel per 0g) @raded 0ernels are pac0ed in tin for e+port and in poly bag for local mar0et) rice of 0ernel illdepends on the grade of 0ernel)  ',3, Cashew Nut Shell Li4uid. The shelling operation performed in the cashe processing industries generates huge #uantity of shell, hich isabout =BJ percentage of ra seeds) The cashe nut shell is about 1F< inch thic0ness, ith a soft honeycombstructure inside, containing a dar0 reddish bro n *iscous li#uid 0no n as Cashe %ut Shell &i#uid oil) It is pericarp fluid of the cashe nut) C%S& is a *aluable ra material obtained as a byproduct from cashe nut processing industry) It is e+tracted by *arious methods li0e roasting nuts and collecting e+pelled li#uid,e+traction ith hot C%S&, ithout charging 0ernel, superheated steam treatment method and sol*ent e+tractionmethod, etc,5136) C%S& is reported to be 2: ( 3;J by eight of the unshelled nut in India hen compared toother part of orld reported that 2; M 2:J 536) igure 2) >ain constituents of C%S& oilC%S& is recogni4ed as a *aluable commodity because of its high concentration of unsaturated long chain phenols such as Cardanol $1', cardol $2', 2(methylcardol $3' and nacardic acid $A' figure 2 51A6) o e*er nacardic acid is thermally labile and easily degraded into Cardanol by decarbo+ylation at high temperature51:6) s the e+traction method *aries, the #uantity and #uality of C%S& oil *aries ith the composition percentage of nacardic acid, Cardanol and cardol) 5iscussion and Summary.+, E6traction 7ethods of CNSL oil. .ifferent e+traction methods are a*ailable for the e+traction of C%S& oil from ra cashe nut shell in cashe  processing industries) The actual composition of C%S& may *ary ith the srcin of the shells, their climaticconditions and mostly the process of e+traction, and in fact a ide *ariation is reported in the composition of C%S&) C%S& can be e+tracted from ra cashe nut before shelling and after shelling from cashe nut shell, hich is also 0no n as natural or immature C%S& $iC%S&' and technical C%S& $tC%S&' oil) Immature C%S&oil had higher le*el of impurity, higher *iscosity, lo er thermo(o+idati*e stabilities and lo er ebullitionA
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