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  Global Journal of Environmental Research 4 (1): 43-46, 2010ISSN 1990-925X© IDOSI Publications, 2010 Corresponding Author: M.K. Awasthi, Regional Office M.P. Pollution Control Board, Vijay Nagar Jabalpur (M.P.), India 43 Composting of Municipal Solid Waste of Jabalpur City S.P. Gautam, P.S. Bundela, A.K. Pandey, M.K.Awasthi and S. Sarsaiya 12322 Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi, India 1 Regional Office M.P. Pollution Control Board, Vijay Nagar Jabalpur (M.P.), India 2  Department of Biological Sciences, Mycological Research Laboratories, R.D. 3 University, Jabalpur (M.P.), India, 482001 Abstract:  A pilot study was conducted to asses the feasibility of composting of source separated organicmatterof municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in low, middle and high income areas of Jabalpur city witha population over 5 lack. Results of MSW analysis indicate the presence of high percentage of Biodegradableorganic matter, acceptable moisture content and C/N ratio. On windrow composting, not only the volume of thewaste was reduced but also produced a crumbly earthy smelling soil-like, compost material. All quality parameters in the compost samples were found to be within the acceptable limits set by international standard.ThepH ranged between 7.8-8.1, organic matter 45%, moisture 36% and have acceptable amount of plantnutrients C35%, N (0.05%), P (0.002), Na (4.8%), K (0.35%). The compost quality could further be improved byadding cow manure, poultry manure or yard waste etc. Its use in plant production or land reclamation may behelpful to maintain soil fertility and improve moisture holding capacity. MSW Composting could be adaptedcountry wide to recycle/reuse the organic residue as solid waste management option. Key words:  Municipal solid waste (MSW) Composting Recycle INTRODUCTION in the processes [12,13] also conducted a number of Rapid increase in population and change in life styleMSW composting is being encouraged in many countriesin India have resulted in a dramatic increase in (MSW).of the world and researchers have experienced theMSWincludes both domestic and commercial wastebenefits of using MSW compost in the field [14-17].accountfor a relatively small part of the total solid wasteKeeping in view the quantum of MSW generation instream in developed countries [1]. Accumulation of a largeJabalpur city and huge cost for its disposal, the presentamount of waste may create several problems toinvestigation was carried out to select an appropriateinhabitingpopulations. It requires application of somesystemof solid waste management which is discussed ineffective strategies for proper disposal of (MSW).this paper.Composting is a microbial based aerobic process which isnowconsider as an environmentally sound way to reduce MATERIALS AND METHODS organic waste and produce organic fertilizer or soilconditioner [2]. Modeling composting process is theThe investigation was conducted at Madhya Pradesh prerequisiteto realize the process control of composting.Pollution control Board Vijay Nagar Jabalpur andOver past years, there have been many approaches [3].Mycological Research laboratory R.D.V.V. Jabalpur whichhave been used to investigate compostingCampus in the month of March to May 2009 at ambient processes [4-6] considered growth rates oftemperature ranging from 35 to 45 °C. MSW weremicroorganismsand used the mooned equation tocollected from nine different localities from Jabalpur city,simulate the composting processes [7-9] made emphasisrepresenting high, middle and low socio economic areas.onthe thermodynamic and physicochemical changesThe organic material mainly vegetable, fruit and kitchentaking place during composting processes [10,11]waste etc., were separated manually and subjected todeveloped a dynamic simulation model to presentturned windrows composting process. Percentage of  biodegradationprocesses in composting based on theorganic waste generated at various income groups wereknowledge of the physical and chemical change occurringdetermine as per [18].workers on the modeling for composting process. The  Global J. Environ. Res., 4 (1): 43-46, 2010 44The total weight of introduced organic material forcleanly indicate that the organic fraction of the refusecompostingand the finished compost were calculated bywas highly suitable for composting process. Similar weighing. Required operation conditions of compostingobservations have also made by many earlier workers [23,were maintained as per [19]. Aeration typically in the heap24,].It was observed during the process that the mixturewasprovided by manually turning of waste. A heap ofheated up rapidly, reaching a temperature of 48°C after manually separated mixed MSW of 4’ high, 8’long wasone day of composting. By maintaining the temperature of  placedon paved ground on composting windrow type48 – 50 °C for initial 3 days of the process, the frequencyand was watered regularly to maintain moisture levelof turning and mixing of the waste was increased to obtain between 50- 60% and turned manually every 3-5 days fortemperature between 35- 40 °C, (an optimum level for the first six weeks of composting cycle. From the seventhmicrobial degradation) [25-27]. During the course of week,the moisture was allowed to drop when optimumpresent investigation, it was observed that the reduction biosolidsdecomposition was achieved. The process wasin weight of waste was more significantly in the first week.completed in about 8-9 weeks. After this period theIt may be done to maximum microbial activity during thiscompost was allowed to cure for additional three weeksperiod. Composting of MSW during summer seasonwithout turning. The finished compost was then screenedrequired 4-8 weeks where more than 70% weight loss wasout and weighed. A representative compost sample wasrecorded, earthy smell of the material after one week taken from the homogenized compost heap for thecleanly indicated the maturity of compost [19, 28]. It wassequentialphysicochemical analyses. Sub-samples (250noted that the weight loss gradually become moreg) were taken from 4 different points of the compost heappronounced during first week of the test, as microbial(bottom, surface, side and centre).the following physicalactivity increased to maximum. It was observed that, the parameters pH, Electrical conductivity, was determined oncomposting process in summer season was completed ina sample in water (1:5), the Organic carbon (TOC) wasabout 4-6 weeks. The weight reduction in summer seasondetermined by TOC analyzer, Phosphorus was analyzedit was above 70% similar finding observed by [29]. by spectrophotometer and the Concentration of SodiumThescreened compost samples were drawn andand Potassium in the sample were measured using flameanalyzed in the laboratory for the parameters such as photometer.Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) was estimatedpH, Organic matter and moisture. Data recorded in by [20].Table 3 and 4. cleanly indicates that the test sample RESULTS AND DISCUSSION of quality of compost. Organic matter was significantlyPresence of significant amount of biodegradablemore or less lies at part with standard. Comparativelyorganicand inorganic materials in comparison of those oflow nitrogen content was recorded. The amountstandard value [22]. as shown in Table 1 and 2.of other plant nutrients viz. phosphorus (0.42-0.85%),were at part with prescribed international standardhigh (39-47%) while carbon, nitrogen ratio and pH values Table 1: Composting of municipal solid waste in high, middle and low socioeconomic localities S.No.ComponentsHigh%(by weight)MiddleLow 1.Paper9642.Plastic / Polythenes141721.43.Textile1.5324.Rubber/ Leather121.25.Metal0.80.50.36.Glass3.24.21.37.Food wastes30.228.524.48.Soil38.537.342.29.Miscellaneous1.81.53.2Table 2: Average chemical composition of municipal solid waste S.No.ParametersAverage values*Standard values suitable for composting  1.pH7.805.5-8.02.Moisture (%dry basis)36<503.Organic matter (%dry basis)45>204.Nitrogen (%dry basis)0.05>0.65.Carbon (%dry basis)3230-406.C/N ratio ( total dry basis)40:125-50:17.Phosphorus0.002No specs8.Sodium4.8No specs9.Potassium0.35No specs(*Source: Standard Zucconin, F. and deBertolidi, M., 1987) [21]  Global J. Environ. Res., 4 (1): 43-46, 2010 45 Table 3: Comparative average values of pH, Organic matter (%dry basis) and moisture content of MSW Compost and Chemical fertilizer samples S.No.Sample type pHOrganic matter (%dry basis)Moisture 1.MSW Compost (High income)7.75±03239±1.4342.MSW Compost (Middle income)7.82±02747±1.21413.MSW Compost (Low income)7.84±05244±1.5254.Chemical fertilizer6.95±0.1138±0.7100Table 4: Comparative average nutritional values and C/N ratio of composts and Chemical fertilizer samples S.No.Sample typeC(%dry basis)N (%dry basis)C/N ratio(Total dry basis)PKNa 1.MSW Compost (High income)350.0535:0.050.0030.363.42.MSW Compost (Middle income)370.0337:0.030.0050.344.63.MSW Compost (Low income)320.0732:0.070.0020.324.34.Chemical fertilizer22.00±0.710.86±0.0925:580.75±0.210.18±0.020.25±0.025MSW Compost Quality Standard>25>1<25No SpecsNoSpecsNo Specs Sodium (1.21-1.92%) and Potassium(1.00-1.80%) were ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS alsofound within the acceptable limits as prescribedfor soil conditioning similar observation have also madeThe authors are thankful to Madhya by several other workers [30-32]. Pradesh M.P. Pollution Control Board BhopalThe nitrogen deficiency could be improved byand Head, Department of Biological Sciences,addition of phosphoric acid which also preventsR.D. University, Jabalpur, for laboratory facilities.excessive volatilization of ammonia [33]. Also thanks to Municipal Corporation of Jabalpur Thestandard excellent quality compost, generallyfor his support. Ministry of Environment and Forestcontain high concentration of nitrogen but no specificNewDelhi is also thankfully acknowledged for financialvalue set for Phosphorus or Potassium while the MSWsupport.compost prepared during the present study was found to be as good soil conditioner and ecofriendly cheap and REFERENCES  best as compare to Chemical fertilizer. Therefore, its use inJabalpursoil may add compost and improve the aeration,1.White, P.R., M. Franke and P. Hindle, 1995.aggregation and water holding capacity use helps toIntegrated solid waste management: A lifecycle prevent erosion, supplies slow release of nutrients andInventory, Chapman and hall, London.can control numerous soil born disease. 2.Gajdos, R., 1992. The use of Organic waste materials CONCLUSION Hortic., 302: 325-331. Basedon the study it can be concluded thatand its components. Microbiology of solid waste.municipal solid waste is suitable for composting becauseCRC Press, pp: 116-45. of the presence of high percentage of biodegradable4.Hammeleres, H.A., 1993. Theoretical Model of organic matter, acceptable moisture content and C/NComposting Kinetics. Science and Engineeering of ration in the waste. However, the composting process andComposting. The Ohio State University, pp: 37-58. compost quality could further be improved by adding5.Stombaugh, D.P. and S.E. 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