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SMS Based First Aid Treatment Management System For Rural Areas of Baltistan

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In the recent years, mobile technology in Pakistan has boosted up and has become a vital necessity of almost every inhabitant. Not only in terms of communication but in many other aspects of life, mobile technology is catering the needs of a dominant part of population of this country. Innovative utilization of mobile technology in rural areas of Baltistan region has enabled the local people to get the first aid treatment in time. Worthy to be mentioned of all, is the mobile based medical treatment system of mobile technology. It allows the people from rural areas of Baltistan to take utmost benefit of getting the appropriate first aid treatment in time. Keeping in mind the rapid trend of sending and receiving Short Messages Service (SMS) among people, the proposed model is based on the utilization of SMS. The system was made accurate and precise by managing resources and applying data mining techniques. Our Aims mainly includes (1) Survey of mobile users in rural areas of Baltistan. (2) Survey of distant places in rural areas from the main division head quarter hospital (3) Highlighting first aid cases from rural areas in past one year (4) Proposal of SMS based framework for first aid treatment. For the evaluation of survey for the first aid cases we adopted cross-sectional descriptive survey. We also conducted questionnaire based survey for the evaluation of those areas that are far away from the main hospital and mobile users of those rural areas of Baltistan that is situated in northern zone of Pakistan. It was found that more than 70% users can use easily operate the text message (SMS) facility of mobile in the defined areas of Baltistan. Conducting the survey and evaluation is the major part of the research. Survey includes highlighting of ratio of mobile users and areas that are far away from DHQ (Division headquarter) hospital. We also highlighted the first aid cases belonging to rural areas of 2013. By examining the results intimately we proposed a robust system that will facilitate the patients of rural areas. http://www.ijccse.com/RP_3010_5817.html
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  ISSN: 2312-7694 Muhammad et al. / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE) 102 | Page   © 2014, IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 1 No.03 October 2014 www.ijccse.com SMS BASED FIRST AID TREATMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR RURAL AREAS OF BALTISTAN Muhammad Ibrar khan Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Karakoram International University, Skardu Campus, Pakistan. E-mail: ibrar.khan@kiu.edu.pk    Nauman Ali Khan Lecturer, Department of Computer Science, Karakoram International University, Skardu Campus, Pakistan. E-mail: nauman.ali@kiu.edu.pk   Sarah Zeeba Asghar    Student of MS, Department of Computer Science, Islamia College University Peshawar, Pakistan. E-mail: sarahzasghar@gmail.com  Abstract   —   In the recent years, mobile technology in Pakistan has boosted up and has become a vital necessity of almost every inhabitant. Not only in terms of communication but in many other aspects of life, mobile technology is catering the needs of a dominant part of population of this country. Innovative utilization of mobile technology in rural areas of Baltistan region has enabled the local people to get the first aid treatment in time. Worthy to be mentioned of all, is the mobile based medical treatment system of mobile technology. It allows the people from rural areas of Baltistan to take utmost benefit of getting the appropriate first aid treatment in time. Keeping in mind the rapid trend of sending and receiving Short Messages Service (SMS) among people, the proposed model is based on the utilization of SMS. The system was made accurate and precise by managing resources and applying data mining techniques. Our Aims mainly includes (1) Survey of mobile users in rural areas of Baltistan. (2) Survey of distant places in rural areas from the main division head quarter hospital (3) Highlighting first aid cases from rural areas in past one year (4) Proposal of SMS based framework for first aid treatment. For the evaluation of survey for the first aid cases we adopted cross-sectional descriptive survey. We also conducted questionnaire based survey for the evaluation of those areas that are far away from the main hospital and mobile users of those rural areas of Baltistan that is situated in northern zone of Pakistan. It was found that more than 70% users can use easily operate the text message (SMS) facility of mobile in the defined areas of Baltistan. Conducting the survey and evaluation is the major part of the research. Survey includes highlighting of ratio of mobile users and areas that are far away from DHQ (Division headquarter) hospital. We also highlighted the first aid cases belonging to rural areas of 2013. By examining the results intimately we proposed a robust system that will facilitate the patients of rural areas.  Index Terms   —   SMS, Mobile medical treatment, Management information system, Data mining. Introduction Analysis of the previous history shows an exponential growth in the population of Pakistan. The increasing  population has put somewhat of a strain to the presently available facilities since some of the facilities offered are not adequate and because of that, consumer requirement cannot be satisfied sufficiently. Glancing into a few of the unsatisfied facilities that are now taking the shape of issues in Pakistan are Education and more importantly Health [1]. Health facilities in Pakistan have long  been overlooked; people especially living in remote areas or villages are more susceptible to health issues since their approach to a doctor in the time of illness could be obstructed  by the distance they have to cover to reach to a medical facility. Most of the time people who could be able to make to the doctors in the cities are usually handled by the touts, who  just to make more money, push the innocent people into having many random expensive medical tests which are not even required. Information Technology, a facility but now becoming a requirement has a deeper impact on the lives of people everywhere in the world. Especially mobile phones, a person who whether can afford a decent living or not, can afford to have a mobile phone since it being now a basic requirement of the person in the present era. The situation of people in Pakistan using mobile phones feverishly is no exception [2]. As discussed the present situation of health and people’s approach to the doctors, mobile phone can play a vital role in catering the need of people in this regard. Not only that, systems can be constructed that can save up much time of doctors by prescribing accurate medicine to the patients having symptoms of ordinary or seasonal diseases or allergies by just receiving and sending a small and simple SMS. This way not only much portion of the population will get proper medical care in time but would be spared much inconvenience in approaching the doctor. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section II describes the literature review on medical ex pert systems around the world. Section III discusses the survey conducted on the mobile usage in the rural areas of Baltistan and finding of those areas that are far away from the main  ISSN: 2312-7694 Muhammad et al. / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE) 103 | Page   © 2014, IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 1 No.03 October 2014 www.ijccse.com hospital. Section IV demonstrates a proposed sms based expert system that will facilitate patients. It also explains the extensive evaluation of the proposed system in different directions. In Last, section VI concludes with future directions. I.   L ITERATURE REVIEW  Many people in the world especially in the developing countries have their ordinary diseases reach up to a chronic stage when they are not given proper medical care. An accurate medicine can mitigate any common or seasonal disease or allergy only if given or prescribed at the right time. Unfortunately, in Pakistan many times people have to face severity in their disease since usually distance or touts don’t let them approach the doctor in time [3]. While analyzing the medical field’s history of Pakistan, we find that mostly patients were brought to doctors when they were on their last stage. If somehow they would have been treated on early stages with some efficient technique then the ratio of terrible cases could have been decreased. The present situation of health and people’s approach to the doctors in northern rural areas of Pakistan is not satisfactory and easy enough. In order to make the condition better, mobile phones having short message service (sms) facility can play a vital role in catering the need of medical care of people. In addition to that, systems can be constructed that can save up much time of doctors by prescribing accurate medicine to the registered  patients having symptoms of ordinary or seasonal diseases or allergies by just receiving and sending a small and simple SMS. By this way not only much portion of the population will get proper medical care in time but would be spared much inconvenience in approaching the doctor. One of the techniques is working on the highlighted issue that mobile technology can significantly be used in catering the need of medical care of people. So there are projects running around the world that involve the basic idea of using mobile technology. One of the related projects is mHealth . The project has been carried out in a number of developed countries. The sole purpose of this project is to boost up the way a patient is medically treated and his record is maintained by involving mobile technology and remote monitoring devices. There are many useful mobile applications and monitoring devices which have been developed for not only pregnant women for guidance but for the patients who have been fighting with chronic health issues. The activities that have been running under this project not only prove to be helpful for the patients  but equally for the doctors too, as these technological activities save up much of their time for the patients who need serious medical treatment. [6] A secreted social network that has been constructed to exchange personalized mobile content among a number of mobile users can be helpful for the technological medical activities that are carried out where the involvement of mobile technology can be seen. To make the social network more substantial, an interactive approach has been used. [7] Since there can be plenty of message forwarding between the patients and the doctor, a model that has been built to contain numerous senders and recipients. Patient and doctor  both could send out multiple messages as well prove to be supportive for the technological medical activities. [8] So, the system that has been suggested above to be constructed is tested and applied in a few of the developed countries [3]. Since, Pakistan is a developing country and much of the information technology except the mobile phones could not yet make its way into most of the villages and remote areas [2] so these systems which would be placed in different hospitals and clinics would prove to be very helpful in meeting the medical requirements of the patients with ordinary diseases without having a human doctor attending them [5]. Treatment using mobiles and other technology is growing rapidly. Through analysis it is also seen that these technologies are enhancing the facility and communication between patient doctor relationships. If short message service and other facility are used to their optimum then easily this gap of relation  between doctor and patient can be overcome simultaneously if the intelligence is also applied to understand the exact context it can really help to the betterment of communication. II.   MOBILE   USAGE   AND   FIRST   AID   SURVEY We conducted the survey in the rural areas of three ci-ties Skardu, Shigar and Khapolo that are situated in northern areas of Pakistan. These three cities are among the major cities of Baltistan region. Main purpose of the survey was to find out the percentage of those mobile users, who can easily send, receive and read message. As discussed above, it is difficult for the patient to reach on time to the main hospital especially when first aid is required. That’s why we specifically took survey from those villages that are situated at 20 or above kilometers. (Survey was based mainly three features i-e  Number of family members, Number of members that have mobile facility and number of member that can use the texting facility. Survey form details are given in Table 2. Beside this we also conducted a comprehensive survey to find out the need of sms based treatment by gathering more information about every region. The detail of that information is explained through the Table 2. Three key feature of each village were observed clo sely first one “Away from the nearest main hospital” This feature helped us in highlighting the small cities those are away from the main DHQ (District Head Quarter) Hospital. This measure specifically enforced that this specific region is equal to or more than 10 km away from the nearest main hospital. Main reason of highlighting this measure is to  ISSN: 2312-7694 Muhammad et al. / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE) 104 | Page   © 2014, IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 1 No.03 October 2014 www.ijccse.com highlight the need to help those people who has difficulty to reach to main hospital on time. Second “No of First aid cases from this region in DHQ (For Year 20 13)” It was also observed that most of the first aid cases are directly associated to these cities. Third essential key feature of survey was “Which mobile service available” the justification of highlighting the mobile service is to check the availability of mobile technology. By conducting the survey we found various results shown in Table 2. If we analyze the table we can find most of the village that have mobile facility but hospitals are not easily accessible. By seeing results of survey, two key findings were ob-served. Most of members are having mobile and that technology can easily be used for the first aid treatment  purpose. Secondly the ratio of first cases is in big number. III.   PROPOSED   METHODOLOGY Our system uses several methodologies. Overall, it adopts the feature of an expert system and for faster communication cell phones texting facility is used. The proposed work is about constructing a system that can receive SMS (Short Message Service) from a registered patient. System will read the SMS, extract the symptoms of the disease written in the SMS using string mining algorithm and prescribe accurate medicine for the disease stored in its database through sending a message back to the patient. In case, the sent symptoms are of a kind of disease for which the system has no accurate prescription into its database then it will send a SMS directly to the doctor on the mobile phone who would prescribe the medicine for the  patient through sending a SMS back to the system which will further send it on the pa tient’s mo  bile phone. Example scenario “A patient needs medical care for a seasonal allergy”  System will receive a SMS from the patient. In that SMS,  patient writes about the symptoms of her disease i.e. “I have dry cough, a bit of running nose, sneezing, body ache, and sleepy condition all the time. Doctor Can you please suggest medicine for me?” .The System will immediately extract the symptoms out of the SMS by using string mining and classification algorithm. It will look for the words that are stored in its database and can be considered as symptoms of any disease. The system will send a SMS back to the patient on mobile phone prescribing her “Dr.koff cough syrup, Zentaczeritic, Levofloxacin and Nasarin”. The patient again sends a SMS to system in which she says “Sorry doctor I’m allergic to Zentaczeritic”. The system sends this and the  previous SMS to the human doctor and the doctor will suggest “xadine” in the SMS. The system on receiving this SMS will forward it to the patient on her mobile phone and will be saving the same answer for the future use as well. The Propose system will use string mining technique. The symptoms it will extract from a received SMS, from a registered patient, will be extracted with the help of string mining i.e. relative string mining algorithm [4] will be working to support system efficiently. The prescription that will be suggested by the system will be stored in its database. The received mined symptoms will be matched with the symptoms of the disease stored in the database of the system and names of the accurate medicines that will also be stored in its database will be sent back as a SMS to the patient on her mobile phone. Figure 1 demonstrates the flow of data in the proposed system. From Patient 1 to n are connected to the system. By connection we mean registered to the system. All the messages from the patient will be sent directly to the system instead of doctor. From this point two situations can occur. First situation: If the query in the form of text message is stored in data base, after mining automatically an appropriate reply will be send back to the same patient. Second situation: If the query in the form of text message is not stored in data base, srcinal message will be sent to the real doctor that is also registered to the database. Now real doctor will reply that query, it will be sent back to patient and will be stored for the future use as well. IV.   EVALUATION   OF   PROPOSED   MODEL The evaluation of proposed work has been done by comparing the prescription generated by the expert system for a certain disease against the doctors’ prescription for the same disease. To check the correctness and effectiveness of the expert system, a SMS has been sent to the system, telling in the  ISSN: 2312-7694 Muhammad et al. / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE) 105 | Page   © 2014, IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 1 No.03 October 2014 www.ijccse.com SMS about the symptoms of a disease. The system, on receiving the SMS, extracted the symptoms of the disease with the help of string mining i.e. the most efficient string mining algorithm is used that is working to support the expert system in mining out the string of characters from the SMS that can tell about the disease accurately. The prescription that has been suggested by the system was stored in its database. The received mined symptoms were matched with the symptoms of the disease stored in the database of the system and names of the accurate medicines that were also stored in its database were sent back as a SMS. Subsequently, a group of ten doctors’ were being approached and they were asked to prescribe medicines for the same disease that has been given to the expert system through the SMS to generate appropriate prescription for the similar question asked by the patient in the sms. The medicines, those ten doctors prescribed were then compared against the medicines that have been prescribed by the expert system. Among the medicines which were prescribed by the group of ten doctors, medicines by five doctors were an exact match with the medicines that were prescribed by the expert system. Three of the doctors gave somewhat of similar prescription but the other two doctors gave not very similar prescription as compared to the one the expert system generated. This whole exercise of the evaluation of the system shows the effectiveness and correctness of the system. Since, the system generated an accurate prescription for a disease that was when asked about by the doctor(s), most of them also  prescribed the same medicines. The evaluation also shows that the string mining algorithm that has been working in the background of the system is efficient enough to mine out the most accurate string of characters from the SMS that could precisely tell about the disease. V.   C ONCLUSION  This paper provides a review of the existing medical expert systems around the world. There are several medical projects running, and expert systems deployed at different medical centers and hospitals in a couple of developed countries that facilitate the patients of those countries to have access to a  proper and quick medical treatment in time of their illness, without approaching a doctor. There are numerous advantageous mobile applications and monitoring devices which have been developed for not only pregnant women for guidance but for the patients who have been combating with chronic health issues. These medical expert systems and  projects, not only prove to be helpful for the patients but equally for the doctors too, as these technological activities save up much of their time for the patients who need immediate medical treatment. A survey was conducted in the northern areas of Baltistan, Pakistan. Statistics of people especially living in remote areas or villages were acquired, who are more susceptible to health
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