Socio Paper 2

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  ¬† General Studies¬† Notes for UPSC, SSC & Banking Exams Sociology paper-2 Revision Notes Sociology paper-2 Revision Notes Chapter 1- Indian Thinkers AR Desai- Marxist- Student of Ghurye- Social background of Indian Nationalism- historical as well as dialectical approach. Pre colonial: Feudal System different from European- Cooperative feudalism- state was taking tax without any measures for the development of it. Colonial: Zamindari system- trade monopoly- destruction of SSI and artisans. Post Colonial: Green Revolution-PRIs-landlessness and Naxalite movement-Policies in interests of the rich industrial houses-12 families and 80% of the industries. Criticism- MN Srinivas Naxalism started during communist government of Bengal-Studied only modes of production, ignoring education, culture, ideology etc- MS Gore Post colonial periods Cooperatives have reduced poverty- SC Dubey on community programmes- Y Singh said Desai directly didnt use Marxism ideas, gave a platform for study of Indian society. MN Srinivas- Structural Functionalist by his teacher AR Brown- Student of Ghurye- field work strongly against book view- founder of structural approach in India- got to field, do empirical study. Caste system-sub caste and sub sub caste system-rejected Varna view of caste system by Dumont-Ritual criteria (food, language, speech etc) and Secular Criteria (education, wealth, power)- Earlier ritual was important, advent of foreigners Secular became important- Dumont was telling village was a myth and caste is the reality, but Srinivas gave important to both caste and village- Ritual mobility via Sanskritisation- Sanskritisation becomes easier when they improve their position in the secular sphere- Rise of Dominant Caste- Land Reforms PRIs- Green revolution- AGJR (Ahir, Gujjar, Jats, Rajputs). Village system- Critical about Marx view of self sufficient little republic- Critical about Dumont view of village is a geographical territory- Srinivas talked about village exogamy-uniting during festivals-uniting against external aggression- going across villages for needs and commerce- village as identity- caste divides, village unites. Structure of joint family- Srinivas distinguishes between joint household and joint family- AR Desai viewed rise of nuclear family in urban centres as rise of capitalism- Srinivas told that in so called nuclear family jointness is still present- during child birth elders are invited either from husbands side or from wifes side- decisions are taken in nuclear family after consultation from the joint family-joint household is breaking down but not the spirit of jointness. Social Changes- Westernisation-150 years of British rule- railways, press, radio, television, modern technologies- News paper glorifying caste system via matrimonial columns- Temples are collective gathering for where politics and economics are discussed-balance between European modernity and tradition. GS Ghurye- Indology- Study of Indian society using religious texts, Indian art, architecture, folklores, legends, myths Use of Sanskrit text Student of Prof Rivers- Method of diffusion.  Caste System- Caste and Race in India Method of diffusion he doesnt glorify caste or condemn caste- he told caste is product of Indian culture- Caste comes through advent of Aryans- In Aryans time it was based on DoL- but no concept of Superior or Inferior- Priests and travellers glorified caste and it spreaded to south India-6 characteristics of caste system- segmentation-hierarchy- civil and religious disabilities and privileges restricted occupation- restriction on food(offering cooked food, raw items etc)- endogamy- Once caste was binding, now it is polarising society- Brahminic domination- Caste is not static- Dumonts views also same as Ghurye Brahminical supremacy- Srinivas criticised the Brahminical view. Tribes- tribal deities same as Hindu deities- Animism, totemism and naturalism present in Indian society- tribes are backward Hindus as they are slowly adopting Hindu culture- Ghurye criticised Elvins approach of isolationism. Prof Venugopal The content of sociology is changing womens issues, environmental issues, social protests, globalisation etc- which is away from the traditional Indian sociology approach- study of caste, family, marriage etc. Dumont- Western sociological concepts cant be directly applied to study Indian sociology. Indian society is different; an ethno centric approach is needed to specially study about Indian society in great detail. 2-Social background of Indian nationalism Early 19th senctury-cultural awakening-reform movements against orthodoxy-foundation of nationalism. 1885 to 1905-INC formation-progress of nationalism. 1905 to 1918-extremist phase-lal bal pal era- violent revolution- spirited nationalism 1918 to 1934- era of Gandhi- bourgeois and middle class-peasant class champaran, kheda, bardoli . After 1934-All sections included- nationalism at its peak- independence Internal colonialism replaced external colonialism Partha Chatterjee- no link between people and nationalism- people were used for the interest of the elites. Theosophical society- Not only Sanskrit is mother of all languages- Indian culture is mother of all cultures. Vivekananda- Indian culture has solutions for all the problems of the world. Rajaram Mohan Roy- Indian culture-degradation by dogmas and false believes- welcome British- to modernsise it. Rightist- Sanskritik culture- unification across diversities. Gandhiji-wanted a unified nationalism-not a hindu muslim nationalism- love brotherhood among people of all sections. Grassroot development is the need- decentralised movements for their needs and demands- to accomodate Indian nationalism. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Modernisation of Indian tradition European modernity- ideal for the world-renaissance-art of questioning and enquiry-secularism in Europe. Education- secular- liberated from church domination. Value transformation- political sovereignty- equality-fraternity-democracy Nehru-glorified Indian modernity- rural urban devide in indian modernity India-selective modernity-Europe-absolute modernity Gandhiji- not a symbol of modernity- varna system but not based on birth-  believed in hinduism but believed in equality. Peter Berger- modernity-cancer-throws people out of country-alien in other places- confusion among masses-social hopelessness among the new generations. Anthony Giddens- modernity has glorified bourgeois capitalist interest. Nehruvian era to LPG era-modernity in India. British era modernity- Bengal intelletcual capital- Delhi political capital-Bombay economic capital. Tradition and modernity in dialectical relationship- can modernity effect is same across traditions-can modernity and tradition share same set of attributes. Modernity is not endogamous to India-a European concept. Peter Worsley- modernity and sociology relationships- sociology out of modernity- sociology also questions modernity- dynamic and dialectical relationships. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Modernity in Europe Celebration phase-questioning phase-rejection phase Simon,Comte,Spencer,Marx,Weber,Parson- celebrated modernity for diff reasons. Immanuel Kant- modernity spirit of human reason-away from dogmas,superstitions,myths. Comte and Spenser- modernity-industrialistion-emotions,ritualism and orthodoxy are replaced by law,rationality,growth,technological development and rise of inclusive society. Modernity-cant be said as good or bad- modernity gives rise to industrialisation-controlled by capitalist class-alienation of working class- state should take control of it for equity and happiness of the masses. Weber-modernity-rise of rational legal authorit. Parson and Durkhime- modernity-technocratic division of labour-social integration-chances of mobility. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- After first WW- modernity was questioned- armed race. Peter Worsley and Anthoney Giddens- modernity double edged weapons- economic development vs homelessness, disillusionment and dependency- in recent times rebellion against modernity is starting as new social movements. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Modernity and tradition in India British justified colonial rule saying- they can liberate people from uncivilised society to advancement and morality- Hence early reform leaders accepted western thoughts to modernise India. Yogendra Singh- Brahmo Samaj- first step towards modernity-Arya Samaj took blend of modernity and tradition. Abhijit Pathak- Indian intelligentia accepted modernity with scepticism-from Dayanand Saraswati to Gandhi and Nehru Anglo Sanksritik education. Vivekananda and Arobinda Ghosh- Connectivity between Indian and western values. Bankim Chndra and Ram Mohan- glorified teachngs of Upanishads. Tilak used ritual festivals for political unification. Gandhi also used religious unity not political unity. MN Srinivas in his analysis of westernisation and social change in India. He  considers modernisation is a value loaded concept because it is generally perceived as anything modern is necessarily good. He prefers to use westernisation as against modernisation to understand social change in India advocating 150 years of British rule has resulted into technological changes, institutional changes and value transformation in Indian society. However these changes are selective, optional than being completely wholesome. He gave the example of modern technologies like printing press, telephopnes, newspapers and other agencies of mass media to imply how they glorified traditional values without compromising their modern desirable roles. Therefore tradition and modernity are mutually coexistant and India and one can't replace outrightly the other. The Indian modernity selective, preferential and partial modernity. Yogendra Singh- highly forceful to dismantle tradition- book modernisation of Indian tradition - laws like abolition of child marriage act, abolition of Sati, Hindu marriage act, Hindu adoption and maintenance act enormously influenced the status of women in India. Women in traditional Indian society didn't have right over their family, children,property, right to divorce that has now been granted to them. Hence self-assurance to women, respect to their dignity and equality can be considered as impact of modernity in India. Modernity-technology-industry-agricuture-massive employment opprtunity-occupational mobility. But the benefits hav not been reached to all section of society. Yogendra Singh- modernity- competitive character among all the stake holders. Political modernity- democracy- political parties- constitutional rules- citizenship-acceleration of public participation in democratic process- traditional domination of selective bodies has gone- peasants, factory workers,vrural people are demand mobility and political power.Traditional values are verge of extinction- MS Gore and SC Dubey supported Singhs view. TN Madan writes that people who accepted modernity have closed mind as compared to those who don't go for modernity and have open mind as they question modernity. State and religion- Indian constitution preamble says secular- But social life influenced by religion- e.g food also has cultural implication- veg or non veg. Hilferding Rudolf- selective modernity- GR as a symobl of modernity- but beneficiaries of modernity are going for political domination without forgetting tradition and caste-Therefore Indian modernity is Indian in character wherein Andre Beteille tells that caste old is replaced by caste new. BR Ambedkar indicated that modernity should be universalistic in character. Its benefit should not be pocketed by few people therefore reservation is essential for unprotected people for a long period of time. To make modernity influential in India one should be allowed to choose his own caste. He was allergic to Hinduism and Christianity but he too wanted religion Gandhiji wanted Hinduism and Ambedkar wanted Buddhism. They both wanted tradition and modernity juxtaposition but how, it differed. Dr Ambedkar believed that since the benefits of modernity is not reaching the marginalised section they have the right to rebel. Feminist view on modernity points out that women are twisted between official and domestic demands. Sexual harassment and exploitation at place of work, unequal pay for equal work etc. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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