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Solid Waste Management

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solid waste management
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  Solid waste management   Introduction to solid waste management Solid waste is the unwanted or useless solid materials generated from combined residential, industrial and commercial activities in a given area. It may be categorized according to its srcin (domestic, industrial, commercial, construction or institutional); according to its contents (organic material, glass, metal, plastic paper etc.); or according to hazard potential (toxic, non-toxin, flammable, radioactive, infectious). Management of solid waste reduces or eliminates adverse impacts on the environment and human health and supports economic development and improved quality of life. A number of processes are involved in effectively managing waste for a municipality. These include monitoring, collection, transport, processing, recycling and disposal. CLASSIFICATION Typical classification of solid waste as follows: 1. Garbage : Putrescible wastes from food, slaughterhouses, canning and freezing industries. 2. Rubbish : non-putrescible wastes either combustible or non-combustible. These include wood, paper, rubber, leather and garden wastes as combustible wastes whereas the non-combustible wastes include glass, metal, ceramics, stones and soil. 3.  Ashes : Residues of combustion, solid products after heating and cooking or incineration by the municipal, industrial, hospital and apartments areas. 4. Large wastes : Demolition and construction wastes, automobiles, furniture’s, refrigerators and other home appliances, trees, fires etc. 5. Dead animals : House holds pets, birds, rodents, zoo animals, and anatomical and pathological tissues from hospitals. 6. Sewage sludges : These include screening wastes, settled solids and sludges. 7. Industrial wastes : Chemicals, paints, sand and explosives. 8. Mining wastes : Tailings, slug ropes, culm piles at mine areas 9.  Agricultural wastes : Farm animal manure, crop residues and others. Traditionally these wastes are categorized into the following five types. 1. Residential  : It refers to wastes generated mainly from dwelling, apartments, and consisted of left over food scrapes, vegetables, peeled material, plastics, wood pieces, clothes and ashes. 2. Commercial  : This mainly consists of grocery materials, leftover food, glasses, and metals, ashes generated from stores, hotels, markets, shops and medical facilities. 3. Institutional  : The wastes generated from schools, colleges and offices include, paper, plastics, and glasses.  4. Municipal  : This includes dust, leaf litter, building debris, and treatment plant sediments. These arise from various activities like demolition, construction, street cleaning, land scraping etc. 5.  Agricultural  : This mainly includes spoiled food grains, vegetables, grass, litter etc., generated from fields and farms. Classification of Solid Wastes Based on Types These wastes may have reuse values in some other places, but these are of no value to the possessor who wishes to dispose them. The knowledge about sources of solid wastes along with the information of the composition and rate of generation, will help in the process of design and operation of the functional elements associated with the disposal and management of solid wastes. Therefore it is important to define various types of solid waste that are generated from various sources (Pheleps et al  ., 1995). 1. Refuse: This is all putrescible and non-putrescible waste except body wastes. It includes all types of rubbish and garbage. 2. Rubbish: This refers to that portion of the refuse, which is non-putrescible solid waste such as packaging materials. 3. Garbage: This refers to that portion of the refuse, which is putrescible component of solid waste. These are produced during cooking and storage of meet, fruits and vegetables. 4. Bulky wastes: These include household wastes, which cannot be accommodated in the normal storage containers and need a special collection mechanism. These include, household appliances such as refrigerators, washing machine, furniture, vehicle parts, tyres, trees, wood branches etc. 5. Street wastes: This includes wastes collected from streets, walkways, parks, playgrounds, which include paper, cardboard, plastics, leaves and other vegetable matter in large quantities. 6. Dead animals: These include dead animals those die naturally or accidentally killed on the road. This category does not include carcasses and animal parts from slaughterhouses, which may be regarded as commercial or industrial components. Many times as in India the large animals if died and are not lifted on right time then they may pose a threat to public health through attracting flies and produce bad odour and create an unhygienic scene. 7. Hazardous Wastes: Hazardous wastes are those produced in the industries, institutes, hospitals and laboratories. These are dangerous to the living organisms immediately or in the long run to the environment in which they are disposed. The hazard may be due to their physical, chemical, biological and radioactive characteristics like, ignitibility, corrosively, reactivity and toxicity. In some cases various chemicals and their mixtures act as hazardous wastes. Those may be pesticides, solvents, acids and bases. Certain hazardous wastes may cause explosions in the incinerators and fires at the landfill sites. Other hazardous waste includes pathological wastes from hospitals and radioactive wastes, which require special handling. A good  management practice should ensure that hazardous wastes are stored, collected, transported and disposed separately after suitable treatment. 8. Sewage Sludge: The sewage treatment plants produce huge amounts of sludge during primary and secondary phase of treatment, these are sticky and rich in pathogens require proper treatment. These are both inorganic and organic. The bulk of dewatered and digested sludge can be used as organic fertilizer or it may be burnt to produce energy.  Objectives of Waste Management  The main goal of solid waste management is reducing and eliminating adverse impacts of waste materials on human health and environment to support economic development and superior quality of life. Risks and Problems Associated with Solid wastes If solid wastes are not managed properly, there are many negative impacts that may result. Some of the most important are mentioned in the following list. The relative importance of each depends very much on local conditions.    result in flooding and unsanitary conditions.    effective vectors that spread disease.    s breed in blocked drains and in rainwater that is retained in discarded cans, tires and other objects. Mosquitoes spread disease, including malaria and dengue.    food, spread disease, damage electrical cables and other materials and inflict unpleasant bites.   combustion include dioxins, which are particularly hazardous.   Aerosols and dusts can spread fungi and pathogens from uncollected and decomposing wastes.   Uncollected waste degrades the urban environment, discouraging efforts to keep streets and open spaces in a clean and attractive condition. Solid waste management is a clear indicator of the effectiveness of a municipal administration - if the provision of this service is inadequate large numbers of citizens (voters) are aware of it. Plastic bags are a particular aesthetic nuisance and they cause the death of grazing animals, which eat them.    particular occupational hazards, including strains from lifting, injuries from sharp objects and traffic accidents.     access ways.    needles and other healthcare wastes, aerosol cans and potentially explosive containers and chemicals from industries) may pose risks of injury or poisoning, particularly to children and people who sort through the waste.    surfaces of roads that were not designed for such weights.    sterilized can transmit infection to later users. (Examples are bottles and medical supplies.)    sites can cause serious pollution of water supplies. Chemical wastes (especially persistent organics) may be fatal or have serious effects if ingested, inhaled or touched and can cause widespread pollution of water supplies.    good engineering practice can slip and collapse, burying and killing people.    t is treated or disposed of in unsatisfactory ways can cause a severe aesthetic nuisance in terms of smell and appearance.    (perhaps formed as a result of chemical reactions between components in the wastes), can have fatal or other serious effects.    be explosive if it is allowed to accumulate in confined spaces (such as the cellars of buildings).    onents of landfill gas) is much more effective than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas, leading to climate change.    and reducing visibility, making disposal sites dangerously unstable, causing explosions of cans, and possibly spreading to adjacent property.    buildings, so buildings constructed on former sites are prone to collapse. Functional Elements of Solid Waste Management The activities associated with the management of municipal solid wastes from the point of generation to final disposal can be grouped into the six functional elements: (a) waste generation; (b) waste handling and sorting, storage, and processing at the source; (c) collection; (d) sorting, processing and transformation; (e) transfer and transport; and (f) disposal.
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