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Solid Waste Management and Sewerage Condition in Barddhaman Municipal Area: An Environmental Overview

Solid Waste Management and Sewerage Condition in Barddhaman Municipal Area: An Environmental Overview
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  1 Solid Waste Management and Sewerage Condition in Barddhaman Municipal Area, West Bengal- An Environmental Overview Shyamal Dutta* and Biswaranjan Mistri** *Assistant Teacher, Gadadharpur Bazar Junior High School, Gadadharpur R.S., Birbhum, West Bengal. E-mail: **Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan, West Bengal. Email: Abstract: Items or things that are no longer necessary or do not have any further use fall in the category of wastes (also termed as rubbish, garbage, refuse, junk etc.). At the beginning of human civilization, wastes ware generated in the forms of bones or other parts of animals they hunted for their food or in the form of wood they cut to make their carts etc. Advancement of civilization with the paths of industrial mechanical and Cultural Revolution has initiated a dramatic change in the day to day life style vis-à-vis consumption pattern which is responsible for ever increasing solid wastes diverse in quantity as well as quality.   This article intends to focus on such precarious scenario of solid waste generation, poor management system and consequences in Barddhaman Municipality, West Bengal. The problem is the product of rapid unplanned urbanization, high population growth rate as 14.19% (1991-2001), and lack of civic sense among dwellers in spite of high literacy rate as 76.4% (2001). The volume of uncollected domestic waste is about 65.83 tons/ day in 2008 due to negligence of governance. Major sites of poor waste managements are at vegetable market, agro-based industries, hospital, nursing home, pathological centers inevitable make a sullying mark on the urban landscape. Key words: Solid Waste, Waste Management, Urban Environment 1. Introduction In developing countries like India the spatial change of population from rural to urban is very rapid phenomenon in present globalised economy. The process of rapid urbanization generates serious challenges to towns and cities, which are struggling to provide and maintain the already inadequate level of urban services and healthy environment. Coupled with the vast consumption of resources is the production of massive amounts of waste, much of which re-enters in the environment as pollution. The sight of a dustbin overflowing and the stench spreading from it are all too familiar in poorly managed crowded city in developing countries. You look away from it and hold your nose as you cross it. Have you ever thought that you also have a role to play in the creation of this stench? That you can also play a positive role in erasing the ugliness through follow just waste disposal methods from individual to institutional level. With the progress of civilization, the waste generated became of a more complex in nature. From industrial revolution to present day globalization results the rise of the world of  2 consumers what in turn not only degrades natural earth’s systems but also tarnish cultural systems as the stench of solid waste and urban sewerage in urban ecosystem. 1.1 Solid Waste and Sewage  According to United Nation Statistical Division (UNSD), wastes are materials that are not prime products (that is product produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/ her own purposes of production, transport or consumption and which he/she wants to dispose. Wastes may be generated during extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products and other human activities. To Indian Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Rules in 2000, includes commercial and residential waste generated in a municipal or notified area in either solid or semi-solid form excluding industrial hazardous wastes but including treated bio-medical wastes. Each household generates garbage or wastes during day and night activities for maintenance of their daily life. Sewage is the waterborne waste derived from home (domestic waste) and animal or food processing plants (Sharma, 2007). It includes human excreta, paper, cloth, soap and detergents, chemical effluents from industries etc. These are the major proportion of the pollutants entering our surface water. There is uncontrolled dumping of waste especially in the urban areas into ponds, lakes, streams, rivers and wetlands. Due to accumulation of this sewage, they are not able to recycle them and their self-regulatory capability is lost (Sharma, 2007).Water become unfit for drinking and beside this the anaerobic decomposition of these sewage materials into urban drains creates lots of environmental as well as civic disorder. 1.2 Study Area The study area, Barddhaman Municipality was designated as municipality in 1865. It is one of the principal urban centers and civil stations of southern West Bengal, is more or less centrally located in the Barddhaman District. Situating in the left bank of Damodar River, latitudinal and longitudinal extensions are 23º 12' N to 23º 17'N and 87º 49'E to 87º 53'E respectively. Areal coverage is 23.04 sq. km. with a population of 2, 85,602 (2001) and divided into 35 wards with a Population density of 2001 is 12396 persons per 2. Objectives The main objectives of this empirical investigation are as follows. (i)   Study the types and major sources of solid waste in Barddhaman Municipality. (ii) Identify the gap between solid waste generation and management of proper disposal. (iii) Assess the adverse impacts of waste disposal on the urban environment. (iv)   Find out the efficient measures to eliminate the man-induced environmental problem.  3 Figure 1 : Location Map on Barddhaman Municipal Area 3. Materials and Methods District Census Handbook (Barddhaman, 2001), Official Website of Barddhaman Municipality and other necessary information from books, journals, research report published as well as unpublished including retrieved web resources have been consulted. Primary information has been collected through rigorous field survey.  4 Collected information are quantified, analyzed and represented with the help of Microsoft Word-2003, Microsoft Excel-2003 and MapInfo Professional 7.0 software after through study of the secondary and primary information. 4. Results and Discussion 4.1 Types and Major Sources of Solid Waste According to scavenging and cleaning act, MSW includes solid waste as ( i )trade refuses,( ii )waste from shops, market areas including papers, straw, cardboard packing, decaying fruits, vegetables etc.,( iii )household wastes such as food items, bottles, polythene, plastic containers, etc.,( iv )carcasses of dead animals and other matter, ( v )wastes from building materials (during demolition and construction) and ( vi )automobiles spares, machines, cycle parts etc. that are thrown as junk. Types and quantity of solid waste in Barddhaman Municipality (Rana, 2007) are depicted in the fig no.2. TYPES AND VARIATION OF WASTE GENERATIONBarddhaman Municipality!""# $%"&$%%&#'&(!$%"%&%) "!"'"*"#"%""%!" Waste fromHouseholdWaste fromMarketWaste fromHotelsWaste fromAgricultureWaste fromTrade andCommerceBio medicalWasteOtherSources SO+R,ES OF WASTE    A   M   O   +   N   T   I   N  m  -   t  r   i  c   t  .  n  /   Figure 2: Types and the Amounts of Solid Waste (Source: Barddhaman Municipality, 2008)  In order to find out the solid waste generation gap following table as per the norms laid down in MSW Management Rules by Ministry of Forest and Environment (MOEF), Government of India (GoI), has been used (Table No.1). With population of 2, 85, 871 in 2001 and projected population in 2013 is 3, 60, 050, the generation of waste @0.21 kg/capita/day, the solid waste generated in Barddhaman Municipality was 60.03 MT in 2001 and to be 75.61 MT in 2013 (Table No.2). But in reality in 2008 the quantity of solid waste generated in this municipality is 162.95 MT which is very high. But according to standard level of waste generation @0.21kg./capita/day, it should be 67.61 MT (Population in 2008 is 321937 as per literacy survey). So there is a net gap of 95.34 MT of waste daily  5 between desired and actual level. This analysis indicates the future scenario of man-induced environmental threat to the rational animal, human being, in the city. Table 1. The Quantity of Municipality Solid Waste Generation Population Range (in Million) Average per capita value (kg/capita/day) 0-0.1 0.21 0.1-0.5 0.21 0.5-1 0.25 2-1 0.27 2-5 0.35 5 and Above 0.5 Source: Manual for Solid Waste Management, Govt. of India , 2000 Table 2. Projected Solid Waste Generation in Barddhaman Municipality Year Population Waste Generated (Kg/day) 2001 285871 60033 2013 360050 75610 2025 134232 91189 Source: Barddhaman Municipality, 2008 To collect and transport the municipal wastes, the municipal authority has used people, equipments and vehicles in specific works as (i) 240 persons (permanent, temporary and daily wages) are engaged in street sweeping, transportation and disposal of waste. Every person have to served 1191 persons, (ii) 120 persons are engaged in drain/toilet cleaning, here every person have to served 5 toilets and 1.5 km of drains, (iii) all total 175 permanent dustbins and (iv) 11 truck and lorries, 135 tricycles including 175 hand carts etc. Figure 3 : Ward-wise Household Solid Waste Generation & Collection (Source: Barddhaman Municipality, 2008)
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