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Sons of Noah

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An article on the sons of Noah
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  Sons of Noah1 Sons of Noah This T and O map, which abstracts that society'sknown world to a cross inscribed within an orb,remakes geography in the service of Christianiconography and identifies the three knowncontinents as populated by descendants of Shem(Sem), Ham (Cham) and Japheth (Iafeth)The world according to the Mosaic account (1854map) The Sons of Noah , or Table of nations , is an extensive list of descendants of Noah appearing in Genesis 10 [1] of the Hebrew Bible,representing a traditional ethnology. According to Genesis, thepopulation of the Earth was completely destroyed during the Flood andNoah and his family were the sole eight survivors to continue andrepopulate the human race. Thus the view of history in the Bible is thatall humans on Earth are descended from Noah's family.  Sons of Noah2 Table of nations Noah dividing the world between his sons (aRussian picture from the 18th century). According to Genesis 10, Noah had three sons:€Shem, forefather of the middle peoples (Semitic Arabian)€Ham, forefather of the southern peoples (Hamitic North/North EastAfrican)€Japheth, forefather of the northern peoples (Japhetic Eurasian)The names of these sons are thought to have significance related toSemitic roots. Shem merely means name or renown , prosperity . [2]    Ham means warm . [3]    Japheth means open . [4] It then proceeds to detail their descendants in three groups, not in theirbirth order, but in the presumptive order they began to have sons afterthe flood. [5] The identification of several of the first generation is aidedby the inclusion of the second, although several of their identificationsare less certain. The copy of the table in the biblical book of 1Chronicles chapter 1 [6] has occasional variations of spelling. Namesending in -im are plural in form. It is unknown if the respectiveprogenitor was srcinally named with a singular form. Japheth's descendants Main article: Japhetic€Gomer, son of Japheth. Usually identified with the migratory Gimirru (Cimmerians) of Assyrian inscriptions,attested from about 720 BC.Wikipedia:Citation needed€Ashkenaz, son of Gomer. It has been conjectured that this name arose from a misprint in Hebrew for Ashkuz , by reading a nun for a vav.  Ashkuz and  Ishkuz were names used for the Scythians, who first appearin Assyrian records in the late 8th century in the Caucasus region, and at times occupied vast areas of Europeand Asia. Additionally, in Medieval Hebrew, Germany is known as  Ashkenaz , and is the srcin of the term  Ashkenazic Jews .Wikipedia:Citation needed€Riphath (  Diphath in Chronicles), son of Gomer. Identification with Paphlagonians of later antiquity wasproposed by Josephus; more often connected with the Riphean or Ural Mountains region.€Togarmah, son of Gomer. Some Armenian and Georgian traditions have claimed descent from Togarmah;other authors have attempted to connect them with Turkic peoples.Wikipedia:Citation needed€Magog, son of Japheth. This name appears in the Assyrian texts as mat gugu , The Land of Gugu, and meansLydia. Gugu is known in Greek texts as Gyges of Lydia, a historical king of Lydia and the founder of theMermnad dynasty (ruled c. 716 - 678 BC). Is claimed as an ancestor in both Irish and Hungarian medieval traditions. Flavius Josephus, followed by Jerome and Nennius, makes him ancestor of the Scythians who dweltnorth of the Black Sea. According to Johannes Magnus, Magog migrated to Sweden (via Finland) 88 years afterthe flood, and one of his sons was the first king of Sweden. His accounts became accepted by the Swedes, and thenumbering of Swedish Monarchs was altered accordingly. Magog is also sometimes said to be the ancestor of theGoths, Finns, Huns, and Slavs.€Madai, son of Japheth. The Medes of Northwest Iran first appear in Assyrian inscriptions as  Amadai in about 844BC.Wikipedia:Citation needed€Javan, son of Japheth. This name since at least Josephus has been connected with the Ionians, one of the srcinalGreek tribes. Variants of this name were used for all Greeks across the Ancient Near East.€Elishah, son of Javan. Identifications have been proposed with various Aegean peoples such as Elis of northwestern Peloponnesos, or Ellis of Phthia.Wikipedia:Citation needed  Sons of Noah3€Tarshish ( Tarshishah in Chronicles), son of Javan. Has been variously connected with Tarsus in Anatolia, orTartessus in southern Spain.Wikipedia:Citation needed€Kittim, offspring of Javan. Usually connected with Kition in Cyprus, but name appears in other texts with avariety of interpretations.Wikipedia:Citation needed€Dodanim (  Rodanim in Chronicles), offspring of Javan. Usually connected with large Aegean island of Rhodesnear the coast of Asia Minor.Wikipedia:Citation needed Note: the Greek Septuagint (LXX) of Genesis includes an additional son of Japheth, Elisa , in between Javan andTubal; however, as this name is found in no other ancient source, nor in I Chronicles, he is almost universally agreedto be a duplicate of Elisha, son of Javan. Nevertheless, the presence of Elisa (as well as that of Cainan son of Arpachshad, below) in the Greek Bible accounts for the traditional enumeration among early Christian sources of 72families and languages, from the 72 names in this chapter, as opposed to the 70 names, families and languagesusually found in Jewish sources.Wikipedia:Citation needed€Tubal, son of Japheth. He is connected with Tabal, an Anatolian kingdom, and by way of the ancient tribe of theTibareni both with the Iberians of the Caucasus and those of the Iberian peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal).Sometimes he is also seen as the ancestor of the Illyrians and Italics. In the book of Jubilees he was bequeathedthe three 'tongues' of Europe. [7] €Meshech, son of Japheth. He is regarded as the eponym of the Mushki tribe of Anatolia. The Mushki aresometimes considered one of the ancestors of the Georgians, but also became connected with the Sea Peoples whoroved the Mediterranean Sea.€Tiras, son of Japheth. This name is usually connected with that of Thracians, an ancient nation first appearing inwritten records around 700 BC. It has also been associated with some of the Sea Peoples such as Tursha andTyrsenoi, with the river Tiras (Dniester), and sometimes with the Anatolian region of Troas, dating to the later13th century BC. In tractate Yoma, of the Talmud, it states that Tiras is Persia.Wikipedia:Citation neededJapheth is traditionally seen as the ancestor of Europeans, as well as some more eastern nations; thus  Japhetic hasbeen used as a synonym for Caucasians. Caucasian itself derives in part from the assumption that the tribe of Japheth developed its distinctive racial characteristics in the Caucasus, where Mount Ararat is located. The termJaphetic was also applied by the early linguists (brothers Grimm, William Jones, Rasmus C. Rask and others) towhat later became known as the Indo-European language group, on the assumption that, if descended from Japheth,the principal languages of Europe would have a common srcin, which apart from Uralic, Kartvelian, Pontic,Nakh-Dagestanian, and Basque, appears to be the case. In a conflicting sense, the term was also used by the Sovietlinguist Nikolai Marr in his Japhetic theory intended to demonstrate that the languages of the Caucasus formed partof a once-widespread pre-Indo-European language group.Wikipedia:Citation needed. Ham's descendants Main article: Hamitic€Cush, son of Ham.€Seba, son of Cush. Has been connected with both Yemen and Ethiopia, with much confusion with Shebabelow.€Havilah, son of Cush.€Sabtah, son of Cush.€Raamah, son of Cush.€Sheba, son of Raamah. Has been connected with Sabaeans and peoples on either side of the narrowest partof the Red Sea.Wikipedia:Citation needed€Dedan, son of Raamah.€Sabtechah, son of Cush.  Sons of Noah4€Nimrod, son of Cush, also identified as a mighty hunter before God  , and the founder of ancient Babel, Akkad,Sumer, and possibly cities in Assyria.Wikipedia:Citation needed€Mizraim, son of Ham. Mizraim is a name for Upper and Lower Egypt and literally translates as Ta-Wy in AncientEgyptian ( The Two Lands ). The -aim in  Mizraim represents dual number. Arabic-speaking modern Egyptiansrefer to their country as  Mi€r  .€Ludim, offspring of Mizraim.€Anamim, offspring of Mizraim.€Lehabim, offspring of Mizraim.€Naphtuhim, offspring of Mizraim.€Pathrusim, offspring of Mizraim.€Casluhim ( out of whom came Philistim ).(Genesis 10:14 [8] , 1Chronicles 1:12 [9] )€Caphtorim, offspring of Mizraim, associated with Caphtor in northeast Egypt near Philistia.(Genesis 10:14 [8] ,1Chronicles 1:12 [9] )€Phut, son of Ham. Ancient authorities are fairly universal in identifying Phut with the Libyans (  Lebu and  Pitu ),the earliest neighbors of Egypt to the west.Wikipedia:Citation needed€Canaan, son of Ham.€Sidon, firstborn son of Canaan€Heth, son of Canaan, described in Genesis as the ancestor of the Biblical Hittites , a people of Canaan.€ the Jebusite , offspring of Canaan, a tribe that lived around Jerusalem, that was formerly known as  Jebus according to the Books of Chronicles.(1Chronicles 11:4 [10] )€ the Amorite , offspring of Canaan.€ the Girgasites , offspring of Canaan€ the Hivite , offspring of Canaan€ the Arkite , offspring of Canaan.€ the Sinite , offspring of Canaan.€ the Arvadite , offspring of Canaan.€ the Zemarite , offspring of Canaan.€ the Hamathite , offspring of Canaan.Beginning in the 9th century with the Jewish grammarian Judah ibn Quraysh, a relationship between the Semitic andCushitic languages was seen; modern linguists group these two families, along with the Egyptian, Berber, Chadic,and Omotic language groups into the larger Afro-Asiatic language family. In addition, languages in the southern half of Africa are now seen as belonging to several distinct families independent of the Afro-Asiatic group. Some nowdiscarded Hamitic theories have become viewed as racist; in particular a theory proposed in the 19th century bySpeke, that the Tutsi were supposedly of some Hamitic ancestry and thus inherently superior  .The 17th-century Jesuit, Athanasius Kircher, thought that the Chinese had also descended from Ham, via Egyptians. Shem's descendants Main article: SemiticThe concept of Semitic peoples is derived from Biblical accounts of the srcins of the cultures known to theancient Hebrews. In an effort to categorise the peoples known to them, those closest to them in culture and languagewere generally deemed to be descended from their forefather Shem.In Genesis 10:21  €  31, Shem is described as the father of Aram, Ashur, and Arpachshad: the Biblical ancestors of theArabs, Aramaeans, Assyrians, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Sabaeans, and Hebrews, etc., all of whose languages areclosely related; the language family containing them was therefore named Semitic by linguists.Shem is traditionally held to be the ancestor of the Semitic people; Hebrews and Arabs consider themselves sons of Shem through Arpachshad (thus, Semites).

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Jul 23, 2017
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