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Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) Sam Markell, Ph.D. Extension Plant Pathologist

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Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) Sam Markell, Ph.D. Extension Plant Pathologist Take Home Messages SCN is important SCN is here SCN is spreading Start/keep looking for it Keep your egg levels low Soybean Cyst
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Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) Sam Markell, Ph.D. Extension Plant Pathologist Take Home Messages SCN is important SCN is here SCN is spreading Start/keep looking for it Keep your egg levels low Soybean Cyst Nematode #1 Soybean Disease in United States Yield reductions (15-30%) before above ground symptoms are present Once in soil you will have it forever We can manage this if. You look for it Find it early Keep egg levels low 1954 Courtesy: Bob Riggs Soybean Cyst Life Cycle Source: Cysts Nodule Impacts of SCN Nodule Takes away nutrients Water update disrupted Interferes with nodulation Cysts How does SCN move? Anything that moves soil moves cysts Equipment Wind Water Soil, birds, boots, etc Richland County Richland County Iowa field, undated Tylka - ISU Yield bu/a Yield Loss Susceptible Check Avg of Resistant Arthur Wyndmere Wolverton Data: SCN variety test - Ted Helms Known Distribution of SCN in South Dakota 1995 Source: L.E. Osborne, South Dakota State University Slide: G. Tylka, Iowa State University Known Distribution of SCN in South Dakota 2000 Source: L.E. Osborne, South Dakota State University Slide: G. Tylka, Iowa State University Known Distribution of SCN in South Dakota 2010 Source: L.E. Osborne, South Dakota State University Slide: G. Tylka, Iowa State University 2003 SCN in North Dakota Sources: NDSU/NASS/NDSC Survey Crop Consultants Diagnostic Lab Submissions AGVISE SCN in North Dakota Sources: NDSU/NASS/NDSC Survey Crop Consultants Diagnostic Lab Submissions AGVISE SCN in North Dakota Sources: NDSU/NASS/NDSC Survey Crop Consultants Diagnostic Lab Submissions AGVISE SCN in North Dakota Sources: NDSU/NASS/NDSC Survey Crop Consultants Diagnostic Lab Submissions AGVISE SCN in North Dakota Sources: NDSU/NASS/NDSC Survey Crop Consultants Diagnostic Lab Submissions AGVISE Minnesota counties infested with soybean cyst nematode (Senyu Chen). When Discovered 1978 to to to MN Survey sample bags Field Days 330 returned to MN valley testing lab, New Ulm. Growers get data Phillip Glogoza received geospatial reference points - mapping Courtesy: Glogoza, UMN Source: Source: Courtesy Agvise What can we do? We can manage this Keep your egg levels low Look for it Critical to find it early (yield loss & egg levels) Soil Testing & in-season digging Resistance Rotation Seed Treatments Where do you sample? Field entrance Flooded areas Low spots Fence rows Low yielding spot Alkaline areas In season digging August or later Take the whole plant Be gentle Bring a magnifying glass Soil Sampling Technique Samples are alive!!! 1 Probe Go where the cyst is More samples = more accurate (20) Mix Keep samples cool-ish Get to the lab Source: SCN Management Guide 5 th ed What do those numbers mean? If you have it, you need to manage it Eggs/100cc Typical measure of levels Don t be deceived they can increase fast Very low numbers (50)??? High numbers = High risk SCN Management Recommendations based on Soil Test Note: Egg counts are reported as eggs per 100cm 3 (about ½ cup) of soil and are only estimations of actual SCN population densities. Next Crop Infestation Category Non-host Soybean Management recommendation No SCN Detected 0 0 No management strategies are necessary. However, not finding SCN in a soil sample does not prove that it is not present in the field. Follow-up sampling is recommended to check for SCN infestations in future years Low 1 4, ,000 If this is first discovery of SCN, follow the rotation described below starting with Year 1 the next time soybeans are to be grown. If years 1 4 of the rotation described below already have been completed, continue with Year 5 of the rotation. Moderate 4,001 16,000 2,001 12,000 Begin Year 1 of the rotation described below the next time soybeans are to be grown. High 16,000 12,000 Grow several years of a non-host crop and sample field again every fall to monitor decrease in SCN population densities. Year 1 - SCN-resistant soybean Year 2 - nonhost crop (such as corn, wheat, alfalfa) Year 3 - SCN-resistant variety with different source of genetic resistance planted in Year 1. Year 4 - nonhost crop (such as corn, wheat, alfalfa) Year 5 - SCN-resistant variety different than the ones planted in Year 1 and 3, or susceptible soybean if numbers are low enough Ongoing Efforts Multiple SCN field days NDSU and NDSC grower survey Sample reimbursement Variety Testing Seed Treatment Testing 2011 and 2012 Courtesy: Greg Tylka - Iowa State University Take Home Messages SCN is important SCN is here SCN is spreading Start/keep looking for it Keep your egg levels low SCN Resources NCSRP Youtube Greg Tylka (Iowa State) Loren Giesler (Nebraska)
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