Alophone bitmaps for programming the rom.
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  Catalog Number 276-1784  AN EXCLUSIVE RADIO SHACK SERVICE TO THE EXPERIMENTER SPO256 NARRATORTM  SPEECH Features Natural SpeechStand Alone Operation with Inexpen-sive Support ComponentsWide Operating VoltageWord, Phrase, or Sentence Library,ROM ExpandableExpandable to 491 K of ROM DirectlySimple Interface to Most Microcom-puters or MicroprocessorsSupports L.P.C. Synthesis: FormantSynthesis: Allophone Synthesis Generel Description The SPO256 (Speech Processor) is a single chip N-Channel  MOS LSI device that isable, using its stored program, to synthe-size speech or complex sounds.The achievable output is equivalent to a flat frequency response ranging from 0to 5 kHz,  a dynamic range of 42dB,  anda signal to noise ratio of approximately35dB.The SP0256 incorporates four basicfunctions: RADIO SHACK, A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATIONU.S.A.: FORT WORTH, TEXAS 76102CANADA: BARRIE,  ONTARIO L4M 4W5 TANDY CORPORATION AUSTRALIA BELGIUM UK 91 KURRAJONG ROAD PARC INDUSTRIEL  DE NANINNE BILSTON  ROAD WEDNESBURYMOUNT   DRUITT,  N S W 2770 5140 NANINNE WEST MIDLANDS WS10  7JN 464 Printed in USA A software programable digital filter that can be made to model a VOCALTRACT.A 16K ROM which stores both dataand Instructions (THE PROGRAM).A MICROCONTROLLER which con-trols the data flow from the ROM tothe digital filter, the assembly of the“word strings” necessary for linkingspeech elements together, and theamplitude and pitch information toexcite the digital filter.A PULSE WIDTH MODULATOR that creates A  digital output which is con- PROCESSOR PIN CONFIGURATIONverted to an analog signal when fil-tered by an external low pass filter. Allophone Based Speech Processor  -   SPO256-AL2 One example of a preprogramed SPO256is the AL2 pattern. Allophone Usage with aMicroprocessor  The SPO256-AL2  requires the use of aprocessor to concatenate the speechsounds to form words.The SPO256 is controlled using the ad-dress pins (A1-A8),  ALD (Address Load),and SE (Strobe Enable). The object for controlling the chip is to load an addressinto It which contains the desired allo-phone. The speech data for the allophoneset is contained within the internal 16KROM of the SPO256-AL2. CUSTOM PACKAGED IN U.S.A. BY RADIO SHACK A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION    PIN FUNCTIONS PIN NUMBER   NAMEFUNCTION   1 “ss Ground2RESETA logic  0 resets  that portion of the SPpowered by VDD. Must be returned to alogic 1 for normal operation.3ROM DISABLEFor use with an external serial speechROM, a logic 1 disables the externalROM.4, 5,6 Cl, C2, C3Output control lines for use with an ex-ternal serial speech ROM. Refer to theSPR016 Data Sheet for details. 7 V DD Power supply for all portions of the SPexcept the microprocessor interface logic. 8 SBY   STANDBY. A logic 1 output Indicatesthat the SP is inactive and VDD can bepowered down externally to conservepower. When the SP is reactivated by anaddress being loaded, SBY will go to alogic 0. B LRQLOAD REQUEST. LRQ is a logic 1output whenever the input buffer is full. When LRQ goes to a  logic 0, the in-put port may be loaded by placing the 8address bits on A1-A8 and pulsing theALD output. 10,11,13,14 A 8 ,   A7,   A6,   A5,   8 bit address which defines any one of  15,16,17,18   A4. A3. A2. A 1 256  speech entry points.12 SER OUT SERIAL ADDRESS OUT. This outputtransfers a 16-bit  address serially to anexternal speech ROM.19 SE STROBE ENABLE. Normally held in alogic 1 state.  When tied to ground, ALDIs disabled and the SP will automatic-ally latch in the address on the input busapproximately lus after detecting a logic1 on any address line.20 ALD ADDRESS LOAD. A negative pulse onthis input loads the 8 address bits intothe input port. The negative edge of thispulse causes LRQ to go high. 21 SER IN SERIAL IN. This is  an E-bit serial datainput from an external speech ROM.Pin Functions Continued   PIN NUMBER   22   2324   25 4 26   27   28 NAME TEST FUNCTION This pin should be grounded for normaloperation. VD1 Power supply for the microprocessor in-terface logic and controller.DIGITAL OUT Pulse width modulated digital speechoutput which, when filtered by a 5KHz low pass filter and amplified, will drive a loudspeaker. SBY RESET STANDBY RESET. A logic 0 resets themicroprocessor interface logic and theaddress latches. Must be returned to alogic 1 for normal operation.ROM CLOCK This is  a 1.56MHz  clock output usedto drive an external serial speech ROM. OSC1   XTAL IN. Input connection for a 3.12MHz  crystal. OSC2 XTAL OUT. Output connection for a 3.12MHz  crystal. ALLOPHONE SPEECHSYNTHESIS Introduction The allophone speech,synthesis technique provides the user with the ability to synthesize an un- limited vocabulary at a very low bitrate. Fifty-nine discrete speech sounds(called allophones) are five pauses are l stored at  different addresses in theSPO256 internal ROM. Each speechsound was excised from a word and an-alyzed using linear predictive coding (LPC).  Any English word or phrase canbe created by addressing the appropri-ate combination of allophones andpauses. Since there Is a total of 64 addresslocations each requires a 6 bit address.Assuming that speech contains 10 to12 sounds per second, allophone syn- thesis requires addressing less than 100bits per second.A few basic linguistic concepts will helpyou start your own library of “allo-phone words”. (See Table 1 for the Gen-eral Instrument Allophone Dictionary).First, there is no one-to-one correspon-dence between written letters and speechsounds; secondly, speech sounds areacoustically different depending upontheir position within a word; and lastly,the human ear may perceive the sameacoustic signal differently in the contextof different sounds.The first point compares to the problemthat a child encounters when learning toread. Each sound in a language may berepresented by more than one letter and,conversely each letter may represent morethan one sound. (See the examples inTable 2.)  Because of these spelling ir-regularities, it is necessary to think interms of sounds, not letters, when usingallophones.7 
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