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SYSTEMS THINKING AND LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS The systems paradigm is a way of thinking about the strategic environment, and how to develop processes in organizations that achieve strategic goals. The systems paradigm should be viewed as a tool that leaders can use to design their organization's capability to: (1 analyze tactical and strategic environments! ( develop and enact strategies in response to environmental demands! and, (# sustain an adaptive and productive organizational culture.
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  SYSTEMS THINKING AND LEARNINGORGANIZATIONS The systems paradigm is a way of thinking about the strategic environment, and how to develop  processes in organizations that achieve strategic goals. The systems paradigm should be viewed as a tool that leaders can use to design their organization's capability to: (1 analyze tactical and strategic environments! (  develop and enact strategies in response to environmental demands! and, (# sustain an adaptive and productive organizational culture. These three types of organizational processes are important in determining whether an organization can achieve strategic ob$ectives in competitive environments. Paradigma system adalah cara berpikir tentang lingkungan strategis, dalam proses pengembangan oerganisasi untuk mencapai sasaran. Paradigma system dapat dikategorikan sebagai alat bahwa bagi para pemimpin yang digunakan untuk merancang proses dalam mengembangkan kemampuan organisasi meliputi : 1. Strategi dan teknis yang dilakukan untuk analisisis perubahan lingkungan. 2. Mengembangkan dan menerapkan strategi sebagai respon terhadap tuntutan lingkungan3. Mempertahankan adaptif produktif dan budaya organisasi. etiga !enis proses organisasi adalah penting dalam menentukan apakah suatu organisasi dapat mencapai tu!uan strategis di lingkungan yang kompetitif   A Leader's Strategic Analysis of the Environment %n 1&&, onsanto's )*+ obert -hapiro's analysis of onsanto's strategic environment surfaced the future need for the company to create low cost, environmentally friendly products. e announced that onsanto would begin its transformation from the chemicals company (ranked /th in 0ortune's 1&& domestic industry ranking and 12th in 0ortune's global industry ranking into a life sciences enterprise devoted to improving human health by seeking synergies in biotech, pharmaceutical research, and food  products. Pada tahun 1 #, $%& 'obert Shapiro Monsanto analisis lingkungan strategis Monsanto muncul kebutuhan masa depan bagi perusahaan untuk menciptakan biaya rendah, produk ramah lingkungan. (ia mengumumkan bahwa Monsanto akan dimulai transformasi dari perusahaan kimia )peringkat * pada tahun 1 + industri dalam negeri ortune perusahaan ilmu peringkat dan ke-1 dalam peringkat industriglobal ortune/ ke dalam kehidupan yang ditu!ukan untuk meningkatkan kesehatan manusia dengan mencari sinergi di biotek, penelitian farmasi, dan makanan produk Developing and Enacting Strategies in Response To Environmental Demands The 3oltek )ompany, in -t. 4ouis, issouri, manufactures carbon fiber, a versatile, light and strong material with wide uses ranging from golf club shafts to the tail section of the 5oeing  $et liner. %ts chairman, 3solt umy has the strategic goal of being the leader in the commercialization of low cost carbon fibers for non6aerospace applications. To achieve this ob$ective, the firm is enacting its strategy in two ways. 0irst it has developed manufacturing process to drive down production costs. -econd, it has  established a series of strategic partnerships with companies such as 5.0. 7oodrich, 7eneral otors, and +wens )orning for strategic positioning and growth in the marketplace. Perusahaan Zoltek, di St Louis, Missouri, memproduksi serat karbon, bahan, serbaguna ringan dan kuat dengan menggunakan luas dari poros golf klub ke bagian ekor dari kapal jet Boeing 777. Ketua Its, Zsolt um! memiliki tujuan strategis menjadi pemimpin dalam komersialisasi serat karbon bia!a rendah untuk aplikasi non dirgantara. #ntuk men$apai tujuan ini, perusahaan ini memberlakukan strategi dalam dua $ara. Pertama, hal ini telah mengembangkan proses manufaktur untuk menurunkan bia!a produksi. Kedua, ia telah membentuk serangkaian kemitraan strategis dengan perusahaan seperti B% &oodri$h, &eneral Motors, dan '(ens )orning untuk penentuan posisi strategis dan pertumbuhan di pasar.  An Adaptive and Productive Organizational ulture arvard 8rofessor osabeth oss 9anter concluded from her study of large .-. corporations that successful organizations have cultures that encourage multiple sensing mechanisms to the environment and enable ;uick reactions to changing environments by generating the best combinations of people for the $ob. These e!amples illustrate one of the ey principles in the systems paradigm# an organization's survival is $ased on sensing% analysis% and interaction &ith its environment (t is important to esta$lish a set of definitions of terms that are highly relevant to the systems paradigm in strategic decision ma ingTerms such as strategic  , decision making processes , and   systems  are used in $oth every day conversation and in professional settings onse)uently% each of these terms are su$*ect to misinterpretation &hen used &ithin specific discussions in this chapter *ar+ard Professor osabeth Moss Kanter men!impulkan dari studin!a perusahaan perusahaan  besar S bah(a organisasi !ang sukses memiliki buda!a !ang mendorong mekanisme  penginderaan ganda untuk lingkungan dan memungkinkan reaksi $epat untuk mengubah lingkungan dengan menghasilkan kombinasi !ang terbaik dari mereka untuk pekerjaan.)ontoh $ontoh ini menggambarkan salah satu prinsip kun$i dalam paradigma sistem- kelangsungan hidup organisasi didasarkan pada penginderaan, analisis, dan interaksi dengan lingkungann!a. dalah penting untuk membangun satu set definisi istilah !ang sangat rele+an dengan paradigma sistem dalam pengambilan keputusan strategis.Ketentuan seperti strategis, proses pengambilan keputusan, dan sistem !ang digunakan dalam setiap pembi$araan hari kedua dan dalam pengaturan profesional. kibatn!a, masing masing istilah tergantung dari penafsiran ketika digunakan dalam diskusi khusus dalam bab ini. WHAT IS STRATEGIC?  The term strategic has three components The first refers to  the top level of the orga! at!o a# the pr!$!pal or pr!$!pal% &ho are 'lt!(atel) re%po%!*le for theorga! at!o+% a$t!o% a# $o%e,'e$e% of tho%e a$t!o%- The second and third components add te(poral a# r!%. #!(e%!o%  to the decisionsthese principals are responsi$le for Strategic outcomes are long term in nature and may not materialize for at least +, years -oreover% strategic outcomes contri$ute directly to the surviva$ility of the organization 0P00 S'0%4S54stilah strategis memiliki tiga komponen. 6ang pertama meru!uk ke tingkat atas organisasi dan kepala sekolah atau kepala sekolah yang bertanggung !awab atas tindakan organisasi dan konsekuensi tindakan tersebut.omponen kedua dan ketiga menambahkan dimensi temporal dan risiko terhadap keputusan ini pelaku bertanggung !awab. hasil strategis !angka pan!ang di alam dantidak mungkin terwu!ud setidaknya 17 tahun. Selain itu, hasil strategis memberikan kontribusi langsung kepada organisasi bertahan hidup. DECISION MAKING /ROCESSES Decision ma ing is associated &ith an individual% the leader. or% to small groups% such as a management team Decision ma ing also refers to the strategic decisions made $ythe principal or principals in an organization% as &ell as the collective information processes &ithin organizations that precede% support% or follo& those decisions These processes include% $ut are not limited to# interpretation of issues% deli$erations conceiving data and information% pro$lem definition% development of decision options% and the selection of a course of action WHAT IS A SYSTEM? Systems are composed of interrelated components such that the properties of $oth the system and its components are changed if the system is disassem$led in any &ay /Ashmos and 0u$er +1234 There are different levels of systems% ranging from the simple mechanical systems &ith predetermined% motions of levers and pulleys /eg% an automo$ile engine4 to comple! social organizations acting to accomplish o$*ectives The systems paradigm focuses on these processes that e!ist among system components% and $et&een system components and the environment P'&S%S P%80M9408 %P;;S08Pengambilan keputusan berkaitan dengan indi<idu, pemimpin, atau, untuk kelompok-kelompok kecil, seperti sebuah tim mana!emen. Pengambilan keputusan  !uga mengacu pada keputusan strategis dibuat oleh kepala sekolah atau kepala sekolah dalam sebuah organisasi, serta proses informasi kolektif dalam organisasi yang mendahului, dukungan, atau mengikuti keputusan tersebut. Proses ini termasuk, namun tidak terbatas pada: interpretasi isu, musyawarah mengandung data dan informasi, de=nisi masalah, pengembangan pilihan keputusan, dan pemilihan tindakan.  SYSTEMS THINKING (t is safe to say that all of you have $een ac)uainted &ith the cy$ernetic or control systems of inputs% transformation processes% outputs% and feed$ac loops that maintain e)uili$rium These system components operate &ithin an environment as sho&n on the ne!t page /figure4 The cy$ernetic system has $een used in a variety of disciplines as the general model of the systems paradigm y$ernetic systems are $lo%e# %)%te(% ,  largely unaffected $y the environment &here they reside 5y its definition% a cy$ernetic system is an inappropriate representation of the comple! processes that occur in organizations% and particularly the strategic decision ma ing processes in organizations BPIKI SIS/Mdalah aman untuk mengatakan bah(a kalian semua telah mengenal sistem $!berneti$ atau kontrol input, proses transformasi, output, dan loop umpan balik !ang menjaga keseimbangan. Komponen sistem ini beroperasi dalam lingkungan seperti !ang ditunjukkan pada halaman  berikutn!a 0gambar1. Sistem $!berneti$ telah digunakan dalam berbagai disiplin ilmu sebagai model umum sistem paradigma. sistem )!berneti$ adalah sistem tertutup, tidak akan terpengaruholeh lingkungan tempat mereka tinggal. 2engan definisi, sistem $!berneti$ adalah representasi tidak tepat proses kompleks !ang terjadi dalam organisasi, dan terutama proses pengambilan keputusan strategis dalam organisasi. ORGANIZATIONS ARE O/EN SYSTEMS Today% organizations e!ist in competitive glo$al environments &here there is strong competition for resources% mar ets% s illed employees% and innovations At the same time% many organizations confront environments that are unpredicta$le and comple! Organizational environments are multifaceted and can $e categorized in the follo&ing &ay# ã The Co(pet!t!o0  The competitive tactics $et&een firms in an industry or $usiness ã C'%to(er%0  (ncludes direct sales or companies that ac)uire another firm's customers through outputs for resale ã The Te$holog!$al Se$tor0  The development of ne& production techni)ues and methods% innovation in materials and products% and general trends in research and science relevant to the organization ã The Reg'lator) Se$tor0  6ederal and state legislation and regulations% city or community policies% and political developments at all levels of government ã The E$oo(!$ Se$tor0  6actors such as stoc mar ets% rate of inflation% foreign trade $alance% federal and state $udgets% interest rates% unemployment and economic gro&th rate ã The So$!o$'lt'ral Se$tor0  The social values of the general population% the &or ethic% and demographic trends /Daft% Sormunen% and Par s +1224
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