Strategic Evolution

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  The brief Evolutionary Historical background of the word ‘Strategy’- A Conceptual atter  Md. Rezaul Karim, Assistant Professor, Southern University Bangladesh Origin of Definition : Strategy is the ‘ eans’  by which ob!ectives are consciously and systematically pursuedand obtained over time. The word “strategy” derives from the ree! word strat gos#which derives from two words$ i. %stratos% & meaning army$ ii. %ago% & which is theancient ree! for leading'guiding'moving. (n its military aspect$ the term had to do withstratagems by which a general sought to defeat an enemy$ with plans he made for acampaign$ and with the way$ he moved and disposed his forces in war. The strategydefinition most commonly !nown today is as the art of analy)ing$ pro*ecting anddirecting campaigns Strategy is not planning. Strategy deals with competitive situation inan uncontrolled environment. Historical Evolution# Strategy is the art of success in utili)ation of the mind# for the last +,-- years$ it has beenthe preserve !nowledge of the ruling classes in politics and business throughout theworld. Early thoughts# /,0123$ The life time of 4rederic! 5inslow Taylor$ the father of Scientific6anagement$ have many contribution to management and business studies and to the7orporate level too. 8is main focus and contribution was how to increase productionwith the same !ind of constraints of resources. (n simple term how to increase the volumewithout increasing the other elements of production or ma9imi)ation of output byminimi)ing input$ and achieve the profitability ob*ective./12+,$ the life time of 8enry 4ayol$ who had introduced the functional managementsystem in the organi)ation$ for which the business enterprises have been following asmooth operational systems with higher efficiency and smooth operation.;ut with these two gurus not enough in the situations when demand and supply collided$ particularly in the years after the Second 5orld 5ar$ when the mills and factories in<urope was devastated and =S> became the sole global supplier of goods andcommodities. So$ the modern evolution of Strategy began after the Second 5orld 5ar$ when demandsuperseded the supply$ and the capacity building was in a shattered position to manipulatethe opportunities. ?uestion began to as!1 why not forecasted in the first place$ and whynot necessary rectifications were ta!en by the managements.  $%&% 'S Scenario# (ong )ange planning# Then the issue was as!ed if there were any targets$ aims$ pro*ections were there in thefirst place$ before the war. The @uestion was almost negative. (n 2,-s only /A =S>companies found to be doing this$ which was termed as oal setting activities$ whichnow we call Ob*ectives setting. (t was an inevitable tas! for management which wasunderstood by the =S companies then and began to adopt regularly$ conse@uently it stoodas /A in 20B. This was called also the long range planning era$ when long term$ say for - years$ ob*ectives were began to ta!en shape. oal setting or ob*ective setting are notmeans$ which not used to be done at all or in a proper fashion. 5e must remember oalSetting and 6eans setting.20-s: <conomic  *lanning# This is the time we all call it as ‘<ra of <conomistsC$ when all the famous economictheories were evolved. The bac! ground was the competition between socialism andcapitalism and smooth macro economic operations. > !ind of show down between two bloc!s to show their supremacy to the world. (n this competition the world and the peopleglobally become benefited with different concepts and theories from famous <conomists.>s such they become began to chair the top post of big =S 7orporations$ and becomeinvolved with ma!ing the strategic process. >s we !now there are fundamentaldifferences between <conomists and business intellectualsC approaches in solving andma!ing steps in rectifying problems. The <conomists who become the corporatechampions at this point in time actually focusing on esearch and Development$diversification$ (nternational mar!et$ ?uantitative 6ethods$ and esource >llocation.Since the corporates become <conomistsC run1 it began over emphasi)ing on esource>llocation. =p till this we could say strategic planning or management is halfway thruC.23-s: Strategic *lanning# Since <conomists are on a driving seat$ ;usiness e9perts and sleeping legends had gone behind the curtain for a while. ;usiness urus are li!e sunshine$ if gone off1light wouldinevitably come bac! some time later$ and li!e the sun behind the cloud they began doingresearching and consulting$ which now a days we !now pretty well as ;oston 7onsultingroups and so on. (t was in 23-s$ when (ntegration of >ll ;usiness 7enters in big corporations beganinitiated by the ;oston 7onsulting roup. The ma*or challenge they faced was termed asstarting consolidating eneral <lectricCs 3- departments into ,- Strategic ;usiness=nits. This made the < the best efficient resource allocating and integrating the whole process. This is for the very first time when the whole strategic process is accomplished.That is setting up of ob*ectives$ ma!ing strategic formulation$ resource allocation$ andimplementation and reengineering.So$ the =S economy started re1flourishing again in the 23-s. Till then more and moremodifications and new ideas began pouring mostly from esearchers and businessintellectuals who are directly and indirectly involved with one or other independent business consulting firms.  The business events iportant to reeber# 20/ E merger pea!ed E +-- companies23- E Stressed E Declining earnings$ heavy borrowings23 E <nergy crisis.+--- E 4inancial 7risis.
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