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Structural Design of Bamboo in East Africa

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Structural Design of Bamboo in East Africa
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   STRUCTURAL BAMBOO DESIGN IN EAST AFRICA  by EVAN T. MYERS A REPORT submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE Department of Architectural Engineering and Construction Science College of Engineering KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY Manhattan, Kansas 2013 Approved by: Major Professor Kimberly Waggle Kramer, P.E., S.E.    Abstract This document addresses East Africa‟s  need for safe, sustainable, and affordable housing and promotes use of bamboo as a structural material by providing adequate information and resources to evaluate the strength of bamboo. East African housing is a leading issue for the region because of the population growth, specifically in urban areas where housing resources and infrastructure cannot match the population growth. The solution may be bamboo housing as an alternative to urban slums. The bamboo species Oxytenanthera abyssinica is available throughout East Africa region and has been accepted and implemented in traditional housing throughout the region. This document references the resources provided by the International Code Council (ICC), International Organization for Standardizations (ISO), and International  Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) for the use of bamboo as a structural material in  buildings. This paper also discusses the mechanical strength of bamboo, and the structural  behavior of bamboo in buildings. In addition, bamboo construction shows the tools, connections, and preservatives used in the field. The design example, using Oxytenanthera abyssinica,  provides the traditional layout and materials for an Amhara house, and calculations show the practicality of bamboo in structural design. This document has led to recommendations for engineers and the bamboo industry, including the development of a codebook for bamboo design, promoting bamboo farms and plantations, creating a uniform connection, and increasing  bamboo‟s servic e life. From research, bamboo is in need of further development before being considered a viable structural material to provide for commercial use but would suffice for the housing shortage in East Africa.  iii Table of Contents List of Figures ................................................................................................................................. v   List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. vi   List of Abbreviations .................................................................................................................... vii   Glossary ....................................................................................................................................... viii   Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................ ix   Dedication ....................................................................................................................................... x   Chapter 1 - Introduction .................................................................................................................. 1   Chapter 2 - East Africa and Bamboo .............................................................................................. 2    Need for Housing in East Africa ................................................................................................. 2   Availability and Acceptance ....................................................................................................... 2   Chapter 3 - Bamboo as a Structural Material .................................................................................. 4   Design Provisions ....................................................................................................................... 4   Acceptance Criteria ................................................................................................................. 5   ISO 22156 ............................................................................................................................... 5   Empirical Design .................................................................................................................... 6   Mechanical Properties ................................................................................................................. 8   Tension .................................................................................................................................... 8   Compression ........................................................................................................................... 9   Bending & Shear ................................................................................................................... 11   Modulus of Elasticity ............................................................................................................ 12   General Properties and Failures ............................................................................................ 12   Behavior .................................................................................................................................... 12   P- δ Effects  ............................................................................................................................. 13   Seismic .................................................................................................................................. 14   Chapter 4 - Bamboo Construction ................................................................................................ 18   Tools ......................................................................................................................................... 18    iv Connections .............................................................................................................................. 20   Preservatives ............................................................................................................................. 25   Traditional ............................................................................................................................. 25   Chemical ............................................................................................................................... 26   Chapter 5 - Bamboo Design Example .......................................................................................... 28   Loads ......................................................................................................................................... 29   Materials & Layout ................................................................................................................... 30   Bamboo Specification ........................................................................................................... 30   Roof ....................................................................................................................................... 31   Walls ..................................................................................................................................... 32   Columns ................................................................................................................................ 33   Braces .................................................................................................................................... 33   Member Sizes ........................................................................................................................ 34   Floor & Foundation ............................................................................................................... 34   Connections ........................................................................................................................... 34   Additional Considerations .................................................................................................... 35   Bill of Materials .................................................................................................................... 35   Drawings ............................................................................................................................... 36   Chapter 6 - Recommendations ...................................................................................................... 45   Standards ................................................................................................................................... 45   Farms & Plantations .................................................................................................................. 45   Connections .............................................................................................................................. 46   Service Life ............................................................................................................................... 46   Chapter 7 - Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 47   References ..................................................................................................................................... 49   Appendix A-Calculations.............................................................................................................. 54   Appendix B  –   Additional Connections ....................................................................................... 169   Appendix C - Glued-Wood Fitting Connection .......................................................................... 174   Appendix D  –   Source Permission ............................................................................................... 177    v List of Figures Figure 3.1 Compression Failure Modes ........................................................................................ 10   Figure 3.2 Governing Failure Mode ............................................................................................. 11   Figure 3.3 Modified Mercalli Scale for Seismic Activity in East Africa ..................................... 15   Figure 3.4 Undamaged Bamboo Structure.................................................................................... 16   Figure 4.1 Tools for Bamboo Construction .................................................................................. 19   Figure 4.2 Lashing Connections ................................................................................................... 21   Figure 4.3 Glued-Wood Fitting Connection ................................................................................. 23   Figure 4.4 Grout-Filled Connection with Steel Rebar .................................................................. 24   Figure 5.1 Similar Housing in East Africa.................................................................................... 28   Figure 5.2 Traditional Amhara House in East Africa ................................................................... 29   Figure 5.3 Measurement of Oxytenanthera abyssinica  ................................................................ 31   Figure 5.4 Half-fink Truss Dimensions from Design Example .................................................... 32   Figure B.1 PVC Type Fittings .................................................................................................... 169   Figure B.2 Combination Connections with Pins and Lashing .................................................... 169   Figure B.3 Threaded Bolt Connections ...................................................................................... 170   Figure B.4 Cable Tie Mount Connection .................................................................................... 170   Figure B.5 Adhesive Connection ................................................................................................ 170   Figure B.6 Clamping Connections .............................................................................................. 171   Figure B.7 Steel Wire and Clamping Connection ...................................................................... 171   Figure B.8 Double Post Connection ........................................................................................... 171   Figure B.9 Drilled Hole Lashing Connection ............................................................................. 172   Figure B.10 Further Bamboo Lashing Connections ................................................................... 172   Figure B.11 Bolt and Pin Connections ....................................................................................... 173   Figure C.1 Glued-Wood Fitting with Steel Plate Connection .................................................... 174   Figure C.2 Steel Plates Welded to Steel Ring Connection ......................................................... 174   Figure C.3 Glued-Wood Fitting with Steel Plates, Welded Connection .................................... 175   Figure C.4 Glued-Wood Fitting with Steel Plates Connected to the Foundation ....................... 175   Figure C.5 Glued-Wood Fitting with Steel Plate and Pin Bundle .............................................. 176   Figure C.6 Wood Fitting with Steel Plate and Pin Bundle ......................................................... 176  
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